Cameroon

Situation Report

Highlights

  • North-West and South West situation report (1-30 April 2022)
  • Four staff of a local NGO abducted by unidentified armed elements when returning from a distribution activity in Widikum, NW.
  • Two incidents of humanitarian food aid truck diversion by non-State armed groups reported in the North-West region (NW).
  • Thirteen students and three teachers abducted in the NWSW and later released.
  • Two schools in Buea, South-West region (SW), suffered arson attacks by unknown armed elements.
Source: OCHA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report

Key Figures

2.0M
Affected people in NWSW
1.4M
Targeted for assistance in NWSW
573.9K
IDPs within or displaced from NWSW
383.6K
Returnees (former IDP) in NWSW
74.8K
Cameroonian refugees in Nigeria

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Cameroon

Situation Report

Funding

$376M
Required
$50.8M
Received
14%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Karen Perrin

Head of Office

Ali Dawoud

Head of sub-Office North-West South-West regions, Buea

Ilham Moussa

Head of sub-Office Bamenda, North-West region

Bibiane Mouangue

Public Information Officer

Ariane Maixandeau

Public Information Officer

Cameroon

Situation Report
Visual

Map of IDP from the North-West and South-West Regions of Cameroon

Map of IDPs from the North-West and South-West regions of Cameroon

Source: Humanitarian Needs Overview 2022

The boundaries and names shown, and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview / Humanitarian access

The situation in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions remained concerning, with continued hostilities, targeted attacks, destruction of property, and continued use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The population continues to bear the brunt of violent incidents, either targeted directly or being affected by the consequences of IEDs or crossfire. Partners reported multiple displacements across the NWSW caused by violence. Over 37,800 persons were reportedly displaced to nearby bushes and villages, with Meme in the SW and Bui in the NW being the most affected divisions. Most of the displacements are pendular and temporary as displaced persons return to their homes once the security situation allows.

There have been positive developments in the fight against the cholera epidemic in the SW, but the epidemic is not yet tackled. The SW regional delegation of public health reported a drop in the number of positive cases in April compared to previous months thanks to joint efforts of the regional health authorities, and Health/WASH Clusters’ partners. Some areas in Ndian division, affected by the cholera epidemic, can only be accessed by boat, further complicating the cholera response.

Humanitarian access remains possible but challenging, requiring significant efforts for organizations to be able to conduct all necessary access negotiations and ensure safe humanitarian operations.

Activities of a humanitarian NGO, which was not authorized by local authorities to operate in Ekondo-Titi subdivision (Ndian division of the SW), remained suspended in the division by the NGO, impacting the health assistance. This comes in addition to the continued suspension of operations by another NGO in the SW since March 2022, in response to the continued detention of two of its staff.

Four staff from a local NGO were abducted by unidentified armed elements when returning from a distribution activity in Widikum, Momo division of the NW, together with their vehicle. The team was later released but the car was not returned.

In two separate incidents, food aid trucks were diverted in two localities of the NW region but returned after negotiations with the assailants.

Attacks against school staff and educational premises continued. In four different incidents, thirteen students and three teachers were abducted, only to be released after payment of ransom. Two schools in Buea suffered arson attacks, on 4 and 6 April, by unknown armed men.

Fourteen incidents with IEDs were reported in April, deployed by non-State armed groups (NSAGs) against State security forces. Eight IEDs were detonated in the NW, five in the SW, and one IED in the SW was deactivated by security forces.

The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) services remain suspended across the NWSW.

About 2 million people affected by the NWSW crisis need humanitarian assistance and 1.4 million of the most vulnerable are targeted by humanitarian partners for assistance in 2022. Over $135.9 million are requested to respond to the needs of the most vulnerable. Limited funding has been a major constraint in the response to humanitarian needs with only 54 per cent of the required funding for the HRP 2021 received.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response
UNICEF and partners are providing radio educational programme to children in SW
UNICEF and partners are providing radio educational programme to children in the South-West region Credit: UNICEF

Education

Education continues to be targeted. Three teachers were kidnapped in the Fundong subdivision (Boyo division) and in Mbengwi (Momo division) by NSAGs. In four different incidents, thirteen students and three teachers were abducted, and later released. Two schools in Buea suffered arson attacks, on 4 and 6 April, by unknown armed men. These incidents negatively affected learning, as they caused fear resulting to absenteeism and dropout amongst teachers and pupils respectively.

The partners supported the training of 351 primary school teachers (189 females) from the NWSW. The teachers received skills on integrating psychosocial support in classroom learning activities and enhancing school-based risk mitigation for 53,017 pupils (30,533 girls). This training aims at improving the protective learning environment in some operational schools in the NWSW. To promote access to education, partners supported 2,305 children (1,198 girls) through the construction of temporary learning spaces. In addition, 34,145 children (19,383 girls) continue to have access to non-formal education through distance learning and radio education programs in the NWSW.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Food assistance
IDP beneficiary of food distribution in South-West region. Credit: OCHA Giles Clarke

Food security

Partners assisted 304,034 people through food distribution (289,529), livelihoods including agriculture (6,873), income generating activities (7,027), and trainings (605). The assistance was provided in-kind and through cash and vouchers.

The World Food Programme (WFP), Caritas Kumba, Authentique Memorial Empowerment Foundation (AMEF), Caritas Bamenda, Community Initiative for Sustainable Development (COMINSUD), and Strategic Humanitarian Services (SHUMAS) completed the April food assistance cycle with 185,851 beneficiaries assisted through direct food distribution and 43,299 persons through cash. In addition, 13,569 children between 6 to 23 months, pregnant and lactating women received specialized nutrition food. Nascent Solutions through its food for education project distributed food to over 62,707 individuals in Bui division in the NW.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Caritas Bamenda in the NW and the Center for Rural Action (CEFORA) in the SW continued with the monitoring of 450 mini poultry production units. An additional 100 households were selected for mini poultry production in Fako. Over 750 households are supported with the African nightshade, tomatoes and mushroom production. Partners including FAO, Afrinet, and Reach Out also provided skills to internally displaced persons (IDPs), returnees and host communities on agriculture and other income generating activities.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Health
MSF Community health volunteer providing free consultation to IDPs in South West region

Health

The cholera epidemic continued to affect communities in the SW. As of 30 April, the SW regional delegation of public health (RDPH) reported 4,677 positive cases and 78 related deaths. However, the RDPH observed a drop in the number of cases and deaths in April (1,118 cases and 7 deaths) compared to March (2,239 cases and 34 deaths).

The cholera vaccination campaign in Buea, Limbe, and Tiko health districts successfully covered 95 per cent of the targeted population in the targeted health areas.

The number of new COVID-19 infections in the NWSW stayed low in April. The positivity rate of tests conducted (0.6%) was the same as of March in the SW region while in the NW, it dropped from 1.2 per cent in March to 0.8 per cent in April.Partners provided lifesaving services to 66,743 people in need in 29 out of the 39 health districts, using different approaches including mobile clinics, community health care workers, ambulance services, and direct support to health care facilities.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response

Protection

Protection partners recorded 150 priority protection incidents including destruction of property (42.66 per cent), killing (16.66 per cent), arbitrary/unlawful arrest and detention (14.66 per cent), theft/extortion of property (10.66 per cent), torture or inhumane treatment (6.66 per cent), physical assault (6 per cent), and attacks against public infrastructure (2.66 per cent). Destruction of property, killings and arbitrary arrests constituted to be the most severe violations perpetrated by both State security forces (SSF) and NSAGs against the civilian population (IDPs, hosts, and returnees). The most affected divisions include Meme (SW), Mezam (NW), and Momo (NW). The period was also marked by NSAG imposed roadblocks, raids orchestrated by SSFs, and kidnappings by suspected NSAGs.

In Mamfe (SW), NSAGs stormed Mile 2 bus station, where they shattered seven vehicles and burnt three shops for selling drinks produced by a brewery company banned in the NWSW by the NSAGs. Three civilians lost their lives during this attack. Armed confrontation in Njenka, Bali subdivision (NW) between NSAGs and SSFs led to the death of three civilians. Roadblocks were placed on the Bamenda-Mamfe and Ikiliwindi-Weme road axis. The roadblock at Weme village, Konye subdivision (Meme division), triggered a raid by SSFs and young men in the village were reported to be tortured. On 19 April, SSFs also raided Bole Bakundu, leading to the deaths of four NSAGs and the arrest of two others. Armed confrontations were also reported in Matondo II, Diongo and Barombi villages in Meme division. This caused the displacement of villagers to nearby bushes for fear of reprisals from NSAGs. In Talangaye village, Nguti subdivision (SW), NSAGs kidnapped three persons. Two buses that left Kumba for Buea on 20 April were hijacked by suspected NSAGs, and the valuables of passengers including money were stolen from them.

Security concerns for the civilian population were high in the run-up to the national day celebrations on 20 May. Some NSAGs announced lockdowns. Also, the military increased its presence, especially in NW, in view of this nationwide event. Protection actors feared this could lead to a spike in protection incidents such as arbitrary arrests, killings, and abductions.

Housing, Land and Property issues (HLP) were raised by HLP actors. IDPs face financial problems which makes it difficult, and even impossible for some, to secure a safe accommodation. Access to land for farming remains a big challenge for the affected population because of high cost for sale and lease.

Child Protection Area of Responsibility (CP AoR)

Child Protection interventions continued despite the declaration of lockdowns by NSAGs in certain areas, notably Lebialem division in the SW. Partners reached over 9,200 persons with mental health and psychosocial support services (2,032 boys, 4,538 girls and 2,631 caregivers). 35 unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) (11 boys and 24 girls) were identified and started receiving case management services. Partners sensitized 2,404 persons on GBV (775 boys, 1,000 girls and 629 adults). Awareness raising on Child Protection, gender-based violence (GBV) and COVID-19 reached 4,805 persons (619 boys, 1,387 girls and 2,799 adults).

Partners continue to advocate for the training of children and caregivers on the dangers of IEDs and unexploded ordnance (UXOs) because of the increasing number of affected children. Funding equally remains a major challenge. Gender-Based Violence Area of Responsibility (GBV AoR)

GBV partners reported 759 GBV incidents to GBV specialized services providers. A decrease of 13 per cent compared to the number of incidents recorded in March (870). About 24.4 per cent of the cases were perpetrated in Mezam (NW), 19.5 per cent in Fako (SW), 15.8 per cent in Lebialem (SW) and 13.3 per cent in Momo (NW). Over 89 per cent of survivors are women and girls, with children constituting 41 per cent of the total survivors, including 5.1 per cent UASC. About 5.4 per cent of survivors are persons living with disabilities. An estimated 45 per cent of survivors are IDPs, while host community members and returnees constitute 52 per cent and 3 per cent respectively.

Reported GBV incidents include emotional abuse (34 per cent), denial of resources or opportunities (21 per cent), physical assault (20 per cent), sexual assault (13 per cent), rape (8 per cent) and forced marriages (4 per cent). Survivors were referred to specialized service providers where they received psychosocial first aid. 75 per cent received psychosocial support services, 10 per cent benefitted from health services, 3.9 per cent benefitted from economic empowerment and livelihood services, 3.8 per cent benefitted from economic emergency basic need support services and 3.2 per cent benefitted from child protection services. Other services provided, included mental health, safe house/shelter and legal assistance.

Partners reached 25,268 people (16,259 females and 9,009 males) with GBV interventions, including GBV awareness-raising, mental health and psychosocial support, legal and medical assistance, safe shelter, risk mitigation, women empowerment, vocational training and economic support to women and girls, distribution of dignity kits to women and girls, child protection services and the provision of emergency basic needs to survivors.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Partners reached 87,356 people through different interventions including WASH response to the cholera outbreak. Main activities implemented are related to hygiene promotion (87 per cent), provision of WASH items (12 per cent), capacity building and provision of safe drinking water (1 per cent). The interventions were implemented in 11 out of the 13 divisions in the NWSW by two international NGOs and 17 national NGOs.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response

Shelter/NFI

In March until the beginning of April, homes were burned, and hundreds of people were displaced in Ndu Subdivision of Donga Mantung division in the NW. TheNorwegian Refugee Council (NRC) started the response to some shelter needs in April. Due to access constraints and insecurity, the shelter needs created by a severe storm in March in Bum Subdivision of Boyo Division in the NW region remain unmet.

Partners assisted 4,350 persons in the NWSW through the distribution of NFI, shelter kits and rental assistance. The Danish Refugee Council (DRC) started the implementation of their voucher program for both shelter and NFI activities with each voucher having a value of XAF 51,600. DRC reached rural locations through this modality using pop-up fairs with the vendors. Thus, DRC provided the voucher amount for a complete shelter kit and NFI to 420 households in Kosse village in West Coast in Fako division and to 270 households in Mabeta village in Limbe (Fako division).

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Situation Report
Coordination

Humanitarian Coordination

OCHA continued to provide leadership in coordinating the humanitarian response through the facilitation of the Inter-Cluster Coordination Group, the Access Working Group, the Information Management Working Group, Civil-Military Coordination meetings and Humanitarian Coordination Forums, including in the West and Littoral regions which host IDPs from the NWSW.

OCHA and humanitarian partners continued to advocate with all parties to ensure affected populations can receive unimpeded life-saving assistance and protection and to facilitate humanitarian access and operations.

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