Cameroon

Situation Report

Highlights

  • North-West and South West situation report (1-31 July 2021 )
  • Humanitarian access further decreased due to the ban of cirulation for all vehicles in the North-West, increased hostilities and risks of collateral damage for humanitarian actors.
  • Unidentified gunmen burned down a school in Bali subdivision in the North-West (NW) region and shot a chief examiner to death in Kumba town in the South-West (SW) region.
  • There was an increase in the number of attacks against health facilities and medical staff.
  • Several attacks targeting humanitarian actors were registered, including temporary abduction, seizing of personal valuables and denial of access to beneficiaries.
Source: OCHA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report

Key Figures

2.2M
Affected people in NWSW
1.6M
Targeted for assistance in NWSW
712.8K
IDPs within or displaced from NWSW
333.9K
Returnees (former IDP) in NWSW
67.5K
Cameroonian refugees in Nigeria

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Cameroon

Situation Report

Funding

$361.6M
Required
$105.1M
Received
29%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Carla Martinez

Head of Office

Ali Dawoud

ead of Sub-Office, North-West and South-West region

Ilham Moussa

Head of Bamenda Sub-Office, North-West region

Marie Bibiane Mouangue

Public information Officer

Cameroon

Situation Report
Visual

Map of IDP, from the North-West and South-West Regions of Cameroon

Map of IDPs from the North-West and South-West regions of Cameroon

Source: OCHA, IOM, CHOI, Partners

The boundaries and names shown, and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview

The security context remained volatile. Sustained violence and a ban on movements on two of the main roads in the North-West hindered the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance, and aggravated humanitarian needs, as affected people continued to flee their homes, seeking safety in bushes and neighboring communities. According to the Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT) data, at least 2,602 persons were displaced.

The number of reported protection incidents and Gender-Based Violence (GBV) cases remained ostensibly high. Attacks against health facilities and medical staff increased, and attacks against schools continued even though students were on holidays. The continuous use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) exposed humanitarian actors to high risks and hindered their free movements. At least eight incidents of detonated or dismantled IEDs in the NWSW regions were reported. Although these IEDs attacks mainly targeted State Security Forces, some civilians were affected. A child lost his right hand after picking up an IED in Boyo NW region.

Attacks against humanitarian actors and their assets continued. Unidentified armed men abdcucted at least three humanitarian organisations’ staff for several hours. In one of the incidents, staff’s money and valuables were confiscated. similarly, attacks on traditional authorities continued with the kidnapping and murder of at least one traditional ruler and several kidnapped for ranson payments. Attacks on the traditional rulers is also having a negative impact on humanitarian access, as they often play a vital role in facilitating community acceptance of humanitarian interventions.

The funding level remained at 12.5 per cent as of 31 July 2021, with no signs of a major increase. The humanitarian response in the NWSW regions has not been able to meet the most urgent needs of affected people and many partners are now forced to suspend some of their activities.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
education
UNESCO provides access to relevant inclusive and quality education to out-of school children, through distance learning platforms (formal and non-formal education system) in the South-West region. Photo: UNESCO/Mirela Kuljanin

Humanitarian Response: Education

Despite school holidays, expected to end in September, attacks were reported against school buildings and education personnel. These included the murder of the chief of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination in Kumba town in Meme Division (SW region), and the burning down of a school in Bali subdivision in Mezam division (NW region).

Education partners conducted a scoping mission to initiate discussions for the development of a Multi-Year Resilience Program (MYRP) 2021 to 2024 for the Education Cannot Wait (ECW) Secretariat in Cameroon in the two regions. The objectives were to visit crisis sites to gain a better understanding of the context, opportunities and challenges of working in Cameroon and to present the findings to key actors of the education sector. The main recommendation after the visit was to continue supporting formal education with a focus on reopened schools, and to support non-formal education including IDPs, refugees and other vulnerable groups such as children with disabilities and adolescent girls. The next step will be to develop the ECW strategies, select the intervention areas, the grantees, and submit the request to ECW. The MYRP in Cameroon has an estimated funding of US$15 million. ECW will approve the application and transfer funds by November 2021.

Despite insecurity, partners continued to provide education services to children in preparation for the upcoming school year 2021-2022, for both regular and out-of-school children.UNICEF, in partnership with Green Partners Association (GPA), distributed 641 solar radios to families with out of school children in the Mezam, Boyo, Ngoketunjia, Bui, and Momo divisions, in the NW. 1,280 children, including 613 girls, have been identified and will benefit from this program from mid-August. UNESCO along with ten local implementing partners including (Authentic Memorial Empowerment Foundation (AMEF), Caritas of the Dioceses of Mamfe, Foundation for Inclusive Education (FIED), Humanitarian Association of Dynamic Youths (HADY), Islamic Private Education Secretariat (IPES), Pan African Institute for Development -West Africa (PAID-WA), Cameroon Association for Bible Translation and Literacy (CABTAL), Caritas the Dioceses of Bamenda, Community Humanitarian Emergency Board (COHEB), Community Health and Social Development for Cameroon (CHOSEDEC), continue to implement the non-formal education programme in community learning spaces in Meme, Fako, Manyu, Kupe Muanenguba, Lebialem divisions in the SW as well as Ngoketunjia, Boyo and Mezam division in the NW. As of 31 July, they reached 10,538 children including 5,892 girls and 80 children with disabilities.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Food assistance
IDP beneficiary of food distribution in South-West region. Credit: OCHA Giles Clarke

Humanitarian Response: Food Security

20 food security partners collectively assisted 203,449 people with food rations, agriculture, and livelihoods assistance. 91 per cent of the beneficiaries received food items. Seven per cent of the total beneficiaries received assistance through cash and voucher modalities.

World Food Programme (WFP) inaugurated the new warehouse in Mutengene, South West region, in July 2021. This is expected to resolve issues around supply chain challenges previously experienced. The transition operations from Douala, Littoral region, to Mutengene based food in the SW and the transport management system hindered the food distribution cycle for July leaving about 80,000 people in the SW without food assistance. Around 37,000 people did not receive food assistance in parts of Mezam, Momo and Boyo divisions of the NW due to numerous imposed lockdowns and commodity shortage, hindering the access to affected communities. The lockdowns might continue to affect humanitarian corridors and deprive IDPs and host communities of access to relief and livelihoods in the coming months.

To promote a more sustainable approach to achieving long-term food security amongst the affected population, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) started the integrated food security approach in Mezam division where 1,860 beneficiaries received both food items and income generating support at the same time, thereby allowing beneficiaries to have a more diversified food consumption while generating their own income enabling them to become self-reliant.

Following its project to support the intensification of market gardening production in the peri-urban area of Buea town, FAO distributed manure and seeds as part of its plan to set up 24 farmer field schools in two production basins in Buea town and Wututu-Bojongo-Sasse village in Buea subdivision.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Health
MSF Community health volunteer providing free consultation to IDPs in South West region

Humanitarian Response: Health

The Regional delegtion of public health continued the vaccination against COVID-19 continues in the NWSW. As of 31July, 8,616 people in the SW and 19,292 people in the NW had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, representing one per cent and two per cent of the eligible population respectively. The positivity rate of tests they have conducted in the SW dropped from 3.4 per cent in June to three per cent in July, while in the NW it stayed at 6.7 per cent through June and July. With the detection of the more contagious delta variant in some regions in July, response capacity surge plans are being developed in the NWSW to deal with any eventual increase in the number of COVID-19 cases.

Health Cluster partners continued to provide essential health care to affected communities in the NWSW. World Health Organization (WHO) deployed one trauma surgeon and performed 14 surgeries in Bamenda. WHO donated emergency health kits for 100 patients to the regional hospital of Buea to support the provision of health care to internally displaced persons and affected communities. UNICEF’s implementing partners Caritas Kumba, Caritas Mamfe, and Caritas Bamenda supported the regional delegation of public health in the NWSW to carry out vaccination of children and pregnant women in seven health districts in the NWSW. They administrated measles and rubella vaccines to 5,094 children aged 6 to 59 months and provided anti-malarial drugs to 5,860 children, treated 995 children aged 0 to 59 months for acute respiratory tract infections and 83 for diarrhea. About 1,901 households received long-lasting insecticides and mosquito nets. Tetanus vaccines were given to 8,081 pregnant women. 214 maternal care kits were provided to pregnant women and 177 newborn kits were provided to mothers and caregivers.

Six incidents of attacks on healthcare were reported in Akwaya health district in the SW, and Bali, Bafut, and Kumbo East health districts in the NW. The incidents ranged from detention of health care workers, criminalization of health care, kidnapping of health care workers for ransom, and confiscation of medical supplies. Attacks on healthcare remain a major challenge and continue to have a negative impact on the availability of healthcare.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Nutrition
A child with severe acute malnutrition admitted for treatment at the limbe regional hospital supported by UNICEF Credit: UNICEF/Salomon Beguel

Humanitarian Response: Nutrition

UNICEF and partners screened 13,664 children, 6,403 boys and 7,261 girls, for acute malnutrition both at distribution sites and the entire project locations through the Comprehensive Child Response (CCR) interventions. 0.9 per cent were identified with severe acute malnutrition and referred for appropriate management and 0.06 per cent were identified with Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM). Cumulatively from January till July, 484 children, 229 boys and 255 girls were identified with SAM and reffered for treatment which represents only 6.0 per cent out of the 8,000 SAM targeted for 2021. 14,688 caregivers and 9,793 women received key messages on optimal infant and young child feeding practices integrating COVID-19 specific messages mainly at distribution sites.

A total number of 654 children including 353 boys and 301 girls aged 6 -23 months and 741 pregnant and lactating women in locations considered food insecure received specialised nutritious food (SNF) through blanket supplementary feeding programme (BSFP). The nutrition survey (using SMART methodology) preparations and consultations are ongoing and is planned to be conducted in the two regions towards the end of October.

UNICEF and implementing partners, including Caritas Bamenda, Caritas Kumba, Caritas Mamfe, Community Initiative for Sustainable Development -COMINSUD and Strategic Humanitarian Services -SHUMAS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), started the implementation of the new Emergency Nutrition Response which targets more than 120,000 beneficiaries in the NWSW.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Protection

Protection Cluster partners INTERSOS and International Rescue Committee (IRC) reported a total of 661 protection incidents in the NWSW regions.

452 incidents equivalent to 68.4 percent of reported cases affected women. IDPs were the most impacted with 398 protection incidents representing 60.2 per cent of the total, followed by members of the host communities representing 26 per cent, and returnees 14 per cent. Furthermore, traditional leaders have also been targeted in acts of violence, including the kidnapping and murder of the traditional chief of Baforkum in Tubah subdivision, in Mezam division, as well as one elder from Bekora village in Ndian division in the SW.

Protection partners reached 281,859 persons through protection monitoring activities. They identified 3,207 most vulnerable persons in need of targeted protection assistance and 60 persons having received support for civil and/or identification documents. Difficulties with referral pathways and lack of response continue to render intervention and response more difficult, nevertheless the updating of referral pathways is underway as recommended by the Protection Cluster. Actors continue to monitor arrests cases due to lack of documentation. Arbitrary arrests, in many instances, result in extortion which represented six per cent of reported protection incidents. It is recommended that advocacy continues with authorities to ensure respect for due diligence and due process when proceeding with arrests. For these reasons and more, protection actors recommend continued sensitization on protection risks, available services and how to access legal and civil documentation.

Protection activities continue to be disrupted and access increasingly difficult due to heavy rainfalls. The security situation for humanitarian actors remains challenging. It has been noted that in areas such as Manyu division in the SW, state security forces have followed humanitarian actors to different locations during missions, potentially questioning the neutrality of humanitarian actors operating in the division.

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Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Child Protection Area of Responsibility (AoR)

The threat of IEDs to the safety of children once again came to light in an incident whereby a fifteen-year-old boy picked an IED in a farmland behind a State Security Forces’ base in Boyo, in the NW Region. The device detonated and amputated one of his arms. This is the second child victim of an IED incident, the first having been in March 2021 when a seven-year-old girl died in the hospital after an Improvised Explosive Device detonated while cleaning their compound in Meme, in the SW. Mine Risk Education (MRE) needs to be rolled out in schools and communities to raise awareness on the dangers of these devices.

CP AoR actors continued to provide child protection services to affected communities, reaching 36,865 children and caregivers, including 20,149 females, with Mental Health and Psycosocial Support (MHPSS) servives in psychosocial support units, child friendly and other safe spaces and with awareness raising sessions on child protection risks, GBV and COVID-19 pandemic. Partners also provided case management services to 1,114 unaccompanied and separated children (UASC), including 568 girls and provided GBV services to 98 beneficiaries, including 58 girls, and 19 women.

Needs assessments indicated that 207 persons, including 91 girls and 19 women need civil documentation. Partners provided 141 beneficiaries including 64 girls and 14 women with legal services, and 22 staff members including 10 females with training on Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA). They sensitized 91 beneficiaries including 34 girls, and 25 women on Accountability to Affected Populations (AAP) strategies.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: GBV Area of Responsibility

1,275 GBV cases were reported to GBV specialized services providers. This sudden increase in reported incidents since the second quarter is due to the significant number of community outreach activities. 87 per cent of survivors of reported GBV incidents are women and 36 per cent children. Survivors received psychosocial support, healthcare, and livelihood services. There is a critical need to scale up lifesaving GBV services and advocate for access to affected communities in hard-to-reach areas.

GBV AoR partners reached 33,376 people with varied GBV prevention and response interventions, including 28,100 in the NW and 5,276 in the SW. Assistance included psychosocial support to 2,516 individuals and capacity building to 214 community members. Moreover, partners reached 9,761 individuals with risk mitigation activities and 20,688 with GBV awareness raising.

Inadequate funds and security challenges continusouly hinder GBV partners’ ability to meet the basic needs of vulnerable people, especially those of women and girls in hard to reach areas.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Shelter/NFI

21,163 individuals from 4,111 households received assistance including 2,789 individuals from 500 households in NW and 18,378 individuals from 3,611 households in SW. In the NW, NRC distributed 500 emergency shelter kits in Donga Mantung reaching 2,789 individuals including 1,423 females. Finders Group Initiative (FGI), conducted post distribution monitoring in Menchun-valley reaching 18 households who received emergency shelter kits. In the SW, Plan International distributed NFI kits to health districts, elderly association and orphanges in Buea, Tiko, Wotutu and Lumbe, in Fako divisions. Dannish Refugee Council (DRC) and AMEF provided emergency shelter kits in Fako and Meme divisions reaching 5,108 individuals including 2,650 females.

The main challenges faced by shelter/NFI partners include the ban of some metallic-based items within the shelter kits in NW, inadequate funds to respond to the needs in NWSW, and active fighting causing new displacements and limiting accesss for partners to implement their activities.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

10 WASH partners reached 199,255 individuals through various interventions, with 52 per cent females and 32 per cent IDPs.

Environmental Protection and Development Association (EPDA), Global Community rescue (GCR) and SHUMAS conducted COVID-19 interventions with lifesaving messages on COVID-19 in both regions. 121,237 persons benefitted from hygiene promotion and sensitization on COVID-19, while 2,765 persons received WASH kits. 90 community health workers, hygiene promoters and volunteers were trained on hygiene and sanitation practices.

Inadequate funding, controversies in relation to COVID-19 vaccine, fighting in several locations, and frequent closure of roads in the two regions caused setbacks and delays in implementation of WASH activities.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Coordination

Humanitarian Coordination

OCHA trained 23 newly recruited staff of international Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs) on humanitarian principles.

OCHA led two Inter-Agency humanitarian missions. On 9 July, the mission to Bali, Batibo, and Widikum subdivisions in the NW focused on monitoring the humanitarian situation and conducting a rapid assessment of the most urgent needs and identifying gaps in humanitarian response especially in the rural areas of these sub-divisions. Moreover, the mission to Kumba and Mamfe in the SW, from 4 to 6 July, focused on humanitarian coordination, consultation with stakeholders and access monitoring.

The funding situation remains a major preoccupation and OCHA continues to raise awareness on the situation and advocate for supplementary funding.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Infection rate per 10,000 people
Infection rate per 10,000 people Source: Cameroon COVID-19 n.84 (from 19 August to 26 August 2021)

COVID-19 Situation report - It covers the period from 1 July to 31 August 2021.

HIGHLIGHTS  

  • According to the Minister of Public Health (MoH), the third wave of COVID-19 could occur in October 2021. He encouraged people to get vaccinated and continue to respect the barrier measures.

  • The MoH alerted on the presence of the COVID-19 Delta variant in Cameroon.

  • As of 25 August 2021, the MoH recorded 1,375 active cases in the country. Cameroon is the ninth African country in relation to the number of cumulative infections recorded since the beginning of the pandemic.

  • As of 28 July 2021, 285,522 people have received the first dose of vaccine and 53,365 the second, which represent 38 per cent consumption of the received vaccines.

  • Initial results of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey on the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine reveals that most of the respondents have a good knowledge of the pandemic (symptoms, people at risk, means of prevention, etc.). However, they are reluctant to take the vaccine because awareness is not primarily raised by health personnel and because of rumors and exposure to misinformation spread mainly on social networks.

  • 80,953 COVID-19 cases

  • 1,872 active cases

  • 2,804 healthcare workers infected

  • 1.8M cumulation of samples tested for COVID-19 (TDR+PCR)

  • 110,324 vaccine doses administrated

  • 1,6% Fatality rate

SITUATION OVERVIEW 

The number of new COVID-19 cases reported has slightly increased over the last three weeks (epidemiological weeks 31,32, and 33 of the year 2021). As of 25 August 2021, 368,478 samples had been analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) bringing the diagnosis rate to 13.6 per 1,000 inhabitants; and 541,421 samples had been tested by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) bringing the RDT diagnosis rate to 56.9 per 1,000 people.

The Ministry of Public Health (MoH) strengthened the vaccination campaign. Between 7 and 17 July, nearly 310,000 people received a dose of vaccine. 254,000 people received their first dose and 56,000 the second. Cameroonian authorities also announced that the Government will soon seize to support the treatment of people infected with COVID-19. As of 29 July, the authorities maintained current COVID-19-related restrictions. Land and sea borders remained closed to international travel. However, freight transport via land and sea routes was likely to continue but would be subject to increased screening. Air borders also remain closed, but authorities had permitted several flights via Douala and Yaounde Nsimalen International Airports.

On behalf of the Minister of Public Health, Mr. Manaouda Malachie, the Secretary general of the MoH, Pr. Louis Richard Njock presided over the first edition of the Immunization Champion Awards 2021, organized by the MoH. In his statement, he recalled that the Immunization Champion Award was an opportunity for the Ministry of Public Health to recognize the contribution of individuals or legal entities to the improvement of health services in Cameroon through their work in the field of immunization. The award honors those who go above and beyond the call of duty to promote or support immunization. On 8 July, Mr. Malachie Manaouda officially authorized the marketing of four improved traditional medicines (TAMs) to fight against COVID-19 on the local market, for three years. These are Adsak COVID/Elixir COVID, produced by the Archbishop of Douala, Samuel Kleda, Corocur powder by Euloge Yagnigni, Palubek's by Christine Bekono and Soudicov Plus by Imam Modibo.

On 21 July, the Cameroonian health authorities received 303,05 doses of Johnson& Johnson vaccine from the US and on 8 August, the government received 158,400 doses from the African Union / African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT) as the first consignment supplied in collaboration with the Africa Medical Supplies Platform (AMSP). On 14 August, the Pasteur Centre of Cameroun (CPC) announced that the COVID-19 Delta variant was present in Cameroon since May 2021, in the cities of Douala and Yaounde. Despite the relatively low number of sequenced samples, health authorities acknowledged they are having difficulty controlling the circulation of the Delta variant, which is more transmissible than the other variants, in the national territory.

Gaps & constraints

  • The COVID-19 vaccination rate in country is very low, 0.3 per cent of the targeted people are fully vaccinated.

  • Lack of involvement of health personnel in COVID-19 vaccination sensitization campaign.

  • The sensitization campaign on COVID-19 vaccination is not adapted to the profiles of the hesitant population and to their geographical location.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response

Case management, Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC)

Needs:

  • Preparedness measures to reduce the risk of a third wave.

  • Need to reach out to the refugees who moved after receiving the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine in July and should already receive the second dose.

  • Shortage of the two types of vaccines.

Response:

  • In August, the Center for the Coordination of Public Health Emergency Operations (CCOUSP) operational research unit conducted a COVID-19 related survey in all regions including 6,500 participants. The survey aimed to determine the level of people’s immunity to COVID-19, estimate retrospective mortality due to the pandemic and measure vaccine hesitancy and its determinants.

  • UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), reported 226 cumulative cases of COVID-19 in the refugee community, including 196 contracted in 2021. Between April and August 2021, 9,039 refugees, representing four per cent of the adult refugee population, received the COVID-19 vaccine.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Low vaccination coverage although the demand is rising after several awareness campaigns.

  • Mobility of the population (new arrivals, displacement...).

  • Lack of availability of vaccine doses in health centers far from health districts.

  • Astra Zeneca and Sinopharm vaccines are out of stock.

  • Lack of communication/awareness on preventive measures at the community level.

  • Low monitoring and surveillance system for the pandemic.

  • Challenges in maintaining the achievements and basic requirements: trained health care providers, appropriate health infrastructure, available hand washing points, medical equipment, etc.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response

Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)

Needs:

  • Need to strengthen communication around COVID-19 vaccination.

Response:

From 19 to 25 August, as part of the Africa CDC Master Card "Saving Lives and Livelihoods" project, the MoH and its partners, including UNICEF and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, implemented the following communication activities:

  • Finalization of the communication material on COVID-19 vaccination, including audiovisual spots and microprogrammes, print materials, etc.

  • Organization of a workshop to develop modules for the training of call center operators 1510.

  • Administration of a survey on COVID-19 seroprevalence in the ten regions in August 2021.

  • Development of an operational communication plan for the COVID-19 seroprevalence survey.

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