Cameroon

Situation Report

Highlights

  • North-West and South West situation report (1-30 September 2021 )
  • UN agencies and humanitarian partners had to fully suspend humanitarian activities as non-State armed groups declared lockdown from 15 September to 2 October.
  • Schools resumed in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions with recurrent NSAGs attacks on children and teachers .
  • Insecurity displaced over 4,724 people in the NWSW, and to the West and Littoral regions.
  • An estimated 200,000 persons did not receive food assistance due to the ban of humanitarian activities during the lockdown.
Source: OCHA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report

Key Figures

2.2M
Affected people in NWSW
1.6M
Targeted for assistance in NWSW
573.9K
IDPs within or displaced from NWSW
383.6K
Returnees (former IDP) in NWSW
68.6K
Cameroonian refugees in Nigeria

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report

Funding

$361.6M
Required
$164M
Received
45%
Progress
FTS

URL:

Downloaded:

Contacts

Carla Martinez

Head of Office

Ali Dawoud

Head of Sub-Office, North-West and South-West region

Ilham Moussa

Head of Bamenda Sub-Office, North-West region

Marie Bibiane Mouangue

Public information Officer

Cameroon

Situation Report
Visual

Map of IDP, from the North-West and South-West Regions of Cameroon

Map of IDPs from the North-West and South-West regions of Cameroon

Source: OCHA, IOM, CHOI, Partners

The boundaries and names shown, and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview

On 6 September, school doors for the 2021-2022 academic year opened in Cameroon, including in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions. However, two out of three schools remained closed, keeping over 700,000 children and adolescents out of school. According to statistics from SW education authorities, collected after the first week of schooling, 53 per cent of secondary schools in the region were not functional. At the basic education level, 49 per cent of primary schools and 47 per cent of Nursery schools still have their doors closed. In the NW region, the situation is worse as only 23 per cent of secondary schools were functional as of 15 September.

Non-State state armed groups (NSAGs) continue to intimidate parents, children, and teachers with attacks on education. By 17 September, NSAGs carried out several attacks in the North-West region: they kidnapped eight students in Bamenda town in the NW, harassed and humiliated them before releasing them after their families paid ransoms. They attacked a girl and chopped her fingers for going to school during the imposed lockdown in Donga-Mantung division. They kidnapped five public school principals in Ngo-Ketunjia division, and killed one of them six days later.

On 11 September, a NSAG announced a general lockdown in the two regions from 15 September to 2 October 2021. The decision banned all movement, work, and social activities. The announcement did not exempt humanitarian activities but gave the exception for ambulances for medical emergencies only. Access to basic services including health, education, and livelihoods was severely affected, and protection activities were severely impacted.

During the lockdown, all schools and community learning spaces were closed, except for some schools in few urban areas which operated at less than 60 per cent of their capacity, compared to the first week of the 2021-2022 academic year. About 200,000 people missed food rations due to the interruption of humanitarian activities and food distributions. Health Cluster partners operating in hard-to-reach and conflict-affected areas could not provide mobile clinic services or critical assistance. On the eve of the lockdown, about 700 people fled their villages to West and Littoral regions, and about 1,800 persons moved to urban centers or safer localities within the NWSW.

Additionnaly, the security situation worsened in certain areas, with frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) against military, and increased armed confrontations between State security forces and NSAGs. Partners reported kidnappings and attacks against people defying the lockdown including bike riders, students and teachers. This caused the displacement of over 2,224 additional people before the lockdown.

Since 15 September, UN agencies and humanitarian partners have been obliged to fully suspend humanitarian activities and put on hold the delivery of life-saving humanitarian assistance to people in need in both regions. Lockdowns negatively impact the humanitarian response which is drastically underfunded. As of 30 September, only 15.8 per cent of the NWSW 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan had been funded.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
education
UNESCO provides access to relevant inclusive and quality education to out-of school children, through distance learning platforms (formal and non-formal education system) in the South-West region. Photo: UNESCO/Mirela Kuljanin

Humanitarian Response: Education

Education authorities indicated that, in the NW, out of 76,478 children enrolled in primary schools at the time of the lockdown only 23,428 representing 31 per cent had access to education during the lockdown period. At the level of secondary education, out of 41,626 children enrolled before lockdown, only 11,649 had access to education, representing 28 per cent. In the SW, only 15,104 out of 60,408 children enrolled in primary schools had access to education during the lockdown, representing 25 per cent. Furthermore, 22,254 out of 39,074 enrolled in secondary schools had access to the classroom, representing 57 per cent.

During the lockdown, some partners continued to provide non-formal learning in safe spaces. 1,484 informal education students, including 866 girls continued to benefit from the radio education programme. Cluster partners collectively provided distance learning services to 5,825 children, including 3,558 girls.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Food assistance
IDP beneficiary of food distribution in South-West region. Credit: OCHA Giles Clarke

Humanitarian Response: Food Security

24 partners collectively supported 149,725 people with emergency food, agriculture, and livelihoods assistance. This represents a 48 per cent decrease compared to 284,535 people assisted in August 2021. 17 per cent of the beneficiaries received agriculture and livelihoods support while 30,000 people received assistance in cash and voucher modalities.

The lockdown left about 170,000 monthly beneficiaries, mainly in the NW region, without any form of assistance as roads, markets and other commercial activities were closed. In the SW, WFP had assisted 55,000 people of its 80,000 beneficiary caseload through double rations in August. Though some partners could make quick rounds of distribution during days, NSAGs uplifted the lockdown for civilians to replenish their supplies. This had little impact as supplies coming from main urban centers like Douala, and semi-urban and rural areas could not reach major cities like Bamenda and Buea.

In collaboration with the Regional Delegation of Agriculture in the South-West, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) received 15 tons of fertilizer, 150 sprayers, 450 bags of manure, and 7,500g improved seeds. FAO and partners will distribute these items in October, instead of September, because of the lockdown.

As the current NWSW context remains dynamic and characterized by continued displacement of families, the World Food Programme (WFP) regularly reviews targeting criteria to ensure that the most vulnerable families are supported. A targeting exercise conducted between March and July 2021 has resulted in the validation of new beneficiary lists and new geographic locations. To allow for a transparent integration of new beneficiaries, WFP has developed several communication materials and strategies to sensitize communities as part of its commitment to accountability to the affected populations.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Health
MSF Community health volunteer providing free consultation to IDPs in South West region

Humanitarian Response: Health

Nutrition partners screened 37,066 children, including 19,733 girls for acute malnutrition. They identified 141children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and referred them for appropriate management. 281 children were identified with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Cumulatively from January till September, 710 children were identified with SAM and referred for treatment. This represents only 18 per cent of the 8,000 estimated SAM target, for 2021. Partners reached 27,519 caregivers, including 10,412 men and 17,107 women, with key messages on optimal infant and young child feeding practices integrating COVID-19 specific messages mainly at distribution sites.

WFP and partners implemented a Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme to prevent acute malnutrition targeting 6,070 beneficiaries, among whom 3,245 were children aged between 6 to 23 months and 2,825 were pregnant and lactating women and girls. 18 communities in Manyu and Meme divisions benefitted from these activities.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends
Nutrition
A child with severe acute malnutrition admitted for treatment at the limbe regional hospital supported by UNICEF Credit: UNICEF/Salomon Beguel

Humanitarian Response: Nutrition

Nutrition Cluster partners screened 19,679 children including 11,952 girls, for acute malnutrition. 35 children were identified with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and referred for appropriate management, and 271 children were identified with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Cumulatively, from January to August, 387 children including 207 girls have been identified with SAM and referred for treatment which represents only 5.0 per cent of 8,000 estimated SAM cases targeted for 2021.

24,053 caregivers including 16,411 women received key messages on optimal infant and young child feeding practices integrating COVID-19 specific messages mainly at distribution sites. 9,479 children including 4,875 girls aged six to 23 months and 6,496 food insecure pregnant and lactating women received specialized nutritious food (SNF) through blanket supplementary feeding programme (BSFP).

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Protection

The protection environment continues to be affected by movement restrictions due to check points, roadblocks and lockdowns imposed by different non-state armed groups (NSAGs) as well as armed confrontations between NSAGs and State Security forces (SSFs). Insecurity forced about 1,778 persons to move to other locations. Protection partners reported 461 incidents in the NWSW. These include theft, destruction of personal property, abductions, forced evictions and killings.

Protection monitors recorded the return of 8,578 Cameroonian refugees from Nigeria to the NWSW regions, mostly adult females. Returnees lack civil documentation, have limited access to economic opportunities and limited access to land and adequate housing. UNHCR is monitoring the situation of refugee returnees and intensifying its cross-border activities with Nigeria.

Partners counselled and/or provided legal assistance to 106 persons on housing, land and property (HLP) related issues. 80 per cent of counselled IDPs are at risk of being evicted by their landlords while 20 per cent presented issues relating to inadequate housing or inability to secure decent and affordable housing. The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) in collaboration with the HLP Working Group trained 23 humanitarian actors in the NW on housing, land and property (HLP) rights.

NRC also organized a football match to promote social cohesion in Tiko in collaboration with the Tiko Social Cohesion Committee. This committee is a community dispute resolution structure set up to ensure collaborative dispute resolution of HLP disputes. The activity brought together IDPs and host community members.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Child Protection Area of Responsibility (AoR)

The long lockdown had negative effects manifesting in the low number of reached beneficiaries, 29,266 compared to 69,208 in August. There was a remarkable increase in incidents reported against education. The most serious incident involved a 12-year-old girl who witnessed her right-hand fingers chopped off for daring to go to school. Teachers, school principals, and school sponsors were abducted for reopening schools. The use of IEDs continued, although at a reduced rate, with 10 IED incidents reported compared to 14 incidents in August. Bui Division of the NW reported the highest number of IED incidents. There are no reports of casualties among children, however, the CP AoR is to continue advocacy on Mine Risk Education, especially focusing on IEDs.

Child Protection actors continued to provide child protection services to affected communities, reaching 29,266 beneficiaries including 15,776 females, with different child protection interventions. 19,202 children and 831 caregivers received mental health and psychosocial support services (MHPSS) in psychosocial support units, child-friendly, and other safe spaces. Awareness-raising on CP, gender-based violence risks, COVID-19 preventive measures, and the importance of birth registration reached 7,840 beneficiaries including 4,024 females. Partners referred 108 vulnerable children for support through community-based child protection mechanisms. Another 432 children including of 237 girls received legal assistance.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: GBV Area of Responsibility

GBV partners reported 1,996 cases to specialized service providers. This represents a 60 per cent increase from 1,205 cases reported in August. Eighty-five per cent of GBV survivors are female. 30 per cent of the total incidents reported are cases related to children. In relation to the type of reported incidents, 37 per cent are denial of resources or opportunities, 10 per cent are cases of physical assault, 34 per cent are emotional abuse and 14 per cent are incidents of sexual violence. There are increasing reports of GBV cases during lockdown periods, including reports of femicide.

1,996 survivors received various services. 55 per cent received psychosocial support, 40 per cent health services, and 25 per cent received livelihood support. Some survivors received more than one type of service.

30,574 people benefited from different GBV interventions, including 26,162 in the NW and 4,412 in the SW. The main activities include mental health and psychosocial support, risk mitigation, GBV awareness-raising, women empowerment, livelihood activities to women and girls survivors of sexual exploitation, conduct safety audits, and risks and vulnerability mapping.

A capacity assessment conducted in September indicated the necessity to build the capacity of partners on psychosocial support services, monitoring, reporting, GBV prevention, and risk mitigation.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Shelter/NFI

Shelter and NFI partners assisted 3,100 individuals from 572 households with shelter/NFI kits. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) distributed 250 core relief items including COVID-19 prevention kits to 1,713 individuals in Ekondo-Titi village in the SW. Plan International distributed bars of soap to 164 households in the NW and 105 households in the SW as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Finders Group Initiative (FGI) conducted a post-distribution monitoring activity and reached 125 households in Menchum Valley and Bamenda 2 subdivisions in the NW and 106 households in the SW that had received emergency shelter kits and bars of soap. The lockdown negatively impacted Shelter/NFI interventions as over 4,500 recently displaced persons could not receive any form of assistance. Partners suspended most of their activities.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

WASH partners reached 86,478 individuals through various interventions including COVID-19 prevention activities. This represents a 52 per cent decrease compared to 178,343 individuals reached in August. The decrease is due to the long lockdown which hindered the implementation of activities.

WASH partners key interventions include hygiene promotion and COVID-19 prevention activities reaching 69,233 individuals, water supply benefitting 1,366 individuals, WASH and dignity kits distribution to 7,878 persons and latrine construction and maintenance benefitting 8,001 persons.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Coordination

Humanitarian Coordination

OCHA continued the coordination of the humanitarian response through advocacy for humanitarian access and for effective and principled humanitarian action through regular meetings with relevant stakeholders. OCHA and humanitarian partners continue to advocate with all parties to facilitate humanitarian access to provide life-saving assistance to the most affected people.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Infection rate per 10,000 people
Infection rate per 10,000 people Source: Cameroon COVID-19 n.84 (from 19 August to 26 August 2021)

COVID-19 Situation report - It covers the period from 1 July to 31 August 2021.

HIGHLIGHTS  

  • According to the Minister of Public Health (MoH), the third wave of COVID-19 could occur in October 2021. He encouraged people to get vaccinated and continue to respect the barrier measures.

  • The MoH alerted on the presence of the COVID-19 Delta variant in Cameroon.

  • As of 25 August 2021, the MoH recorded 1,375 active cases in the country. Cameroon is the ninth African country in relation to the number of cumulative infections recorded since the beginning of the pandemic.

  • As of 28 July 2021, 285,522 people have received the first dose of vaccine and 53,365 the second, which represent 38 per cent consumption of the received vaccines.

  • Initial results of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey on the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine reveals that most of the respondents have a good knowledge of the pandemic (symptoms, people at risk, means of prevention, etc.). However, they are reluctant to take the vaccine because awareness is not primarily raised by health personnel and because of rumors and exposure to misinformation spread mainly on social networks.

  • 80,953 COVID-19 cases

  • 1,872 active cases

  • 2,804 healthcare workers infected

  • 1.8M cumulation of samples tested for COVID-19 (TDR+PCR)

  • 110,324 vaccine doses administrated

  • 1,6% Fatality rate

SITUATION OVERVIEW 

The number of new COVID-19 cases reported has slightly increased over the last three weeks (epidemiological weeks 31,32, and 33 of the year 2021). As of 25 August 2021, 368,478 samples had been analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) bringing the diagnosis rate to 13.6 per 1,000 inhabitants; and 541,421 samples had been tested by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) bringing the RDT diagnosis rate to 56.9 per 1,000 people.

The Ministry of Public Health (MoH) strengthened the vaccination campaign. Between 7 and 17 July, nearly 310,000 people received a dose of vaccine. 254,000 people received their first dose and 56,000 the second. Cameroonian authorities also announced that the Government will soon seize to support the treatment of people infected with COVID-19. As of 29 July, the authorities maintained current COVID-19-related restrictions. Land and sea borders remained closed to international travel. However, freight transport via land and sea routes was likely to continue but would be subject to increased screening. Air borders also remain closed, but authorities had permitted several flights via Douala and Yaounde Nsimalen International Airports.

On behalf of the Minister of Public Health, Mr. Manaouda Malachie, the Secretary general of the MoH, Pr. Louis Richard Njock presided over the first edition of the Immunization Champion Awards 2021, organized by the MoH. In his statement, he recalled that the Immunization Champion Award was an opportunity for the Ministry of Public Health to recognize the contribution of individuals or legal entities to the improvement of health services in Cameroon through their work in the field of immunization. The award honors those who go above and beyond the call of duty to promote or support immunization. On 8 July, Mr. Malachie Manaouda officially authorized the marketing of four improved traditional medicines (TAMs) to fight against COVID-19 on the local market, for three years. These are Adsak COVID/Elixir COVID, produced by the Archbishop of Douala, Samuel Kleda, Corocur powder by Euloge Yagnigni, Palubek's by Christine Bekono and Soudicov Plus by Imam Modibo.

On 21 July, the Cameroonian health authorities received 303,05 doses of Johnson& Johnson vaccine from the US and on 8 August, the government received 158,400 doses from the African Union / African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT) as the first consignment supplied in collaboration with the Africa Medical Supplies Platform (AMSP). On 14 August, the Pasteur Centre of Cameroun (CPC) announced that the COVID-19 Delta variant was present in Cameroon since May 2021, in the cities of Douala and Yaounde. Despite the relatively low number of sequenced samples, health authorities acknowledged they are having difficulty controlling the circulation of the Delta variant, which is more transmissible than the other variants, in the national territory.

Gaps & constraints

  • The COVID-19 vaccination rate in country is very low, 0.3 per cent of the targeted people are fully vaccinated.

  • Lack of involvement of health personnel in COVID-19 vaccination sensitization campaign.

  • The sensitization campaign on COVID-19 vaccination is not adapted to the profiles of the hesitant population and to their geographical location.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response

Case management, Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC)

Needs:

  • Preparedness measures to reduce the risk of a third wave.

  • Need to reach out to the refugees who moved after receiving the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine in July and should already receive the second dose.

  • Shortage of the two types of vaccines.

Response:

  • In August, the Center for the Coordination of Public Health Emergency Operations (CCOUSP) operational research unit conducted a COVID-19 related survey in all regions including 6,500 participants. The survey aimed to determine the level of people’s immunity to COVID-19, estimate retrospective mortality due to the pandemic and measure vaccine hesitancy and its determinants.

  • UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), reported 226 cumulative cases of COVID-19 in the refugee community, including 196 contracted in 2021. Between April and August 2021, 9,039 refugees, representing four per cent of the adult refugee population, received the COVID-19 vaccine.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Low vaccination coverage although the demand is rising after several awareness campaigns.

  • Mobility of the population (new arrivals, displacement...).

  • Lack of availability of vaccine doses in health centers far from health districts.

  • Astra Zeneca and Sinopharm vaccines are out of stock.

  • Lack of communication/awareness on preventive measures at the community level.

  • Low monitoring and surveillance system for the pandemic.

  • Challenges in maintaining the achievements and basic requirements: trained health care providers, appropriate health infrastructure, available hand washing points, medical equipment, etc.

URL:

Downloaded:

Cameroon

Situation Report
Emergency Response

Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)

Needs:

  • Need to strengthen communication around COVID-19 vaccination.

Response:

From 19 to 25 August, as part of the Africa CDC Master Card "Saving Lives and Livelihoods" project, the MoH and its partners, including UNICEF and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, implemented the following communication activities:

  • Finalization of the communication material on COVID-19 vaccination, including audiovisual spots and microprogrammes, print materials, etc.

  • Organization of a workshop to develop modules for the training of call center operators 1510.

  • Administration of a survey on COVID-19 seroprevalence in the ten regions in August 2021.

  • Development of an operational communication plan for the COVID-19 seroprevalence survey.

URL:

Downloaded: