Chad

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Over 170,000 people affected by floods in Chad according to the Red Cross
  • Acute malnutrition persists in Chad
Flooded huts near Bongor
Credit: Chadian Red Cross. October 2019, province of Mayo-Kebbi East. Flooded huts in the outskirts of Bongor.

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Chad

Situation Report

Key Figures

4.3M
People in Need
2M
People Targeted
3.9M
Food insecure people
350k
children suffering from SAM
468k
Refugees
170.8K
IDPs
116.7K
Returnees
$137M
Requested for the Lac Province
$61M
Received for the Lac Province

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Chad

Situation Report

Funding

$476.6M
Required
$231.9M
Received
49%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Federica Gabellini

Reporting and Advocacy Officer

Augustin Zusanné

Public Information Analyst

Emmanuelle Schneider

Desk Officer

Chad

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Carte inondations
Credit : Chadian Red Cross. October 2019, an overview of provinces affected by the floods

Over 170,000 people affected by floods in Chad according to the Red Cross

The rainy season has been abundant this year in Chad. Heavy rains in recent months have caused widespread flooding in many provinces across the country. According to the Red Cross of Chad (CRC), 171,160 people had been affected by the floods by the end of October and the number of people affected throughout the country continues to increase. The initial impact of this natural disaster was mainly felt in the North and East (Tibesti, Borkou, Ennedi-Ouest, Batha and Sila among others) where it affected more than 7,000 people.

The Government, with the support of its partners, has responded to the needs of those affected in the concerned provinces. In Ennedi West, the Office national de sécurité alimentaire (National Office for Food Security (ONASA)) has allocated 100 tonnes of cereal to assist people in need in Fada and Kalaït. The Ministry of Public Health has sent batches of medicines to hospitals in these two departments. UN agencies have also provided health, dignity kits and essential household items to affected households. In Mandoul and the Middle Shari, 30 tonnes of food (on both sides) were provided by ONASA.

Mayo-Kebbi significantly impacted

In the South of the country, over 130,000 people have been affected by the floods, including more than 80,000 people in Mayo-Kebbi East. In this province, CRC assessments indicate that 80,612 people (about half of all affected people in the country) have been impacted by river overflows. Torrential rains and floods have caused a disastrous humanitarian situation in the four departments of the province, causing extensive material damage (destruction of houses, loss of animals, food and other property) and deaths.

The province of Mayo-Kebbi East, which borders Cameroon, has already been affected by an ongoing cholera epidemic since the end of August, with more than 97 cases recorded, including 12 deaths in mid-November. The damage caused by the rains considerably increases people's vulnerability to disease and dangerously compromises their physical and mental health and economic situation. In addition, many affected people live in hard-to-reach areas, making the humanitarian response even more difficult.

A first assessment by Chadian Red Cross volunteers has already highlighted the basic needs of the people of Mayo-Kebbi East, including food, shelter and non-food items. A multisectoral assessment mission, composed of UN agencies and NGOs, was carried out in the province from 22 to 27 November to gather additional information to support resource mobilization and a targeted response.

Further flooding in Salamat

In addition to the heavy rains in August, which caused considerable damage (3 deaths, 205 villages affected, 7,215 households or 21,921 people affected, 17,385 ha of fields flooded, 2,686 houses destroyed), the Salamat province has just recorded a new case of flooding in the Haraze-Magueigne department. On 20 November, local authorities issued an alert about the overflow of the Bahr-Aouk river that flooded the locality of Donney in the Daha sub-prefecture. According to the provisional data provided by the authorities and the Red Cross of Chad, 162 households have been affected and 952 hectares of crops have been destroyed). As a result, there has been an increase in malaria cases and risks of other waterborne diseases, increased vulnerability of the local population and a shortage of basic goods. Local authorities are seeking the support of humanitarian partners and the government to respond to the emergency.

Intensifying the response

For the CRC, multisectoral assistance for the victims will help relieve their suffering and protect their lives. Thus, the organization relies on the commitment of all partners to update the list of disaster victims, distribute food and household items, build shelters, and clean up the environment through disinfection and cleaning.

On 13 November, the humanitarian community discussed how to intensify the response to the affected people across the country. Given the very limited resources from the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP 2019) programmes, agencies are exploring, with donors, all options to refocus existing funding or to access additional funds.

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Chad

Situation Report
Background
GAM situation
GAM situation in 2019 vs 2018 (Source: OCHA, UNICEF).

Acute malnutrition persists in Chad

The Ministry of Public Health and its partners, including the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), published the results of the SMART nutritional survey in October 2019. The main objective of this survey is to assess the nutritional situation of children aged 0-59 months and women aged 15-49 years and estimate retrospective mortality in the general population and among children under 5 years of age.

According to the results of this survey, acute malnutrition is stationary in Chad with 12.9% of global acute malnutrition (GAM) and 2.9% of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared to 2018 where the GAM rate was 13.5% and 4% for SAM. Some 18 provinces recorded GAM rates above 10% (situation of concern). Of these provinces, nine are in emergency situation (exceeding the World Health Organisation’s 15% threshold).

With regard to SAM, 13 provinces are in a situation of emergency after recording rates above 2% of the emergency threshold. The most affected ones are Salamat (4.2%), Ennedi West (3.9%), Kanem (3.6%), Ennedi East (2.9%) and Hadjer Lamis (2.8%). This year, fortunately, no province has recorded SAM rates exceeding 5 or 6%, as did Ennedi Ouest, Hadjer-Lamis, Sila and Kanem in 2018.

These data show that the nutritional situation has deteriorated in some provinces and improved in others, compared to 2018, while it has remained stagnant in some other areas.

The situation has deteriorated in some provinces

A dozen provinces have been in a state of emergency or alert (red or orange) since last year. These provinces, mainly in the Sahel belt and the whole North, make up most of the provinces most severely affected by GAM, as shown on the map.

In addition to these severely affected provinces, there are also those whose situation has deteriorated since 2018. This is the case of Tibesti, which was in an alarming situation last year (13.6%) and has now worsened to emergency. The Western Logone and Mayo-Kebbi East have transitioned from a normal to alert (11.3% and 10.1% respectively) in 2018.

Mandoul has switched from a normal to precarious situation (6.4%). This deterioration could be explained by, among other things, limited household access to food due to the economic crisis that the country has been experiencing for a couple of years, restrained access to water and sanitation services in these areas or harmful traditional practices.

Slight improvement in other areas

There is a slight improvement in some traditionally affected areas. The nutritional status of children has gone from critical to worrisome in Wadi-Fira, (12.6%) Ouaddaï (12.1%), Guéra (11.6%) and Hadjer Lamis (14.8%) provinces. However, the prevalence still remains above 10%, sometimes approaching the emergency threshold.

Acute malnutrition becomes chronic in the Sahel Chad’s Sahel belt has for years recorded very high rates of acute malnutrition. Kanem, Bar-El-Gazel, Ouaddaï, Guéra, Batha, Hadjer Lamis and Wadi-Fira are among the hardest hit provinces.

Despite the fact that food production was up in 2019 compared to the previous year and higher than the average of the last five years, acute malnutrition persists. Low food availability in some households, poor hygiene and sanitation practices and some epidemics (i.e. measles) are among the causes of this nutritional problem. Responses to the situation have focused more on the medical treatment of malnourished people than on addressing the structural causes of the phenomenon.

Adopting the new way of working, which responds to the emergency while addressing the underlying causes of the problem, could help the government, with the support of its partners, curb this chronicity of acute malnutrition. The consistent engagement of development actors and donors could highly contribute to ending this chronic cycle.

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