Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Over eight months on since the start of the conflict in Tigray, the humanitarian situation remains alarmingly dire and could further deteriorate if immediate action is not taken.
  • Inside the region, humanitarians can now access previously hard-to-reach area, with 75 per cent of the population now in zones where relief operations can take place.
  • In addition, a humanitarian convoy arrived on 12 July in Tigray’s capital Mekelle, the first to reach the region in more than two weeks.
  • However, supplies & personnel fall short of the immense needs of people in Tigray. Stocks are depleting fast, as road access to the region has been curtailed over the last weeks.
  • Increased humanitarian funding and unfettered access to the region is urgently needed to prevent loss of life in Tigray.
Ethiopia
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. © OCHA

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Key Figures

5.2M
People in need
5.2M
People targeted
63,110
Refugees in Sudan since 7 November

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Funding

$854M
Requirements (May - December)
$435M
Outstanding gap (May - December)

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Contacts

Saviano Abreu

Public Information Officer

Peter Ekayu

Deputy Head of Office, OCHA Ethiopia

Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Background

Disclaimer

This report is prepared by OCHA Ethiopia with the support of Cluster Coordinators. The data/information collected covers the period from 6 to 15 July. The dashboard data below is as of 22 June. In some cases, access and communication constraints mean that updates for the period are delayed. The next issue of the sitrep will be published on 23 July.    

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Visual

Results from Northern Ethiopia Response Plan (since 1 May)

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview

More than eight months on since the start of the conflict in Tigray Region, the humanitarian situation remains alarmingly dire and is expected to deteriorate further, as aid organizations continue to report major challenges to deliver assistance to people affected by the fighting and insecurity. 

Despite recent improvements in access within Tigray since end-June, movements in and out of the region has been extremely challenging, impacting humanitarian’s capacity to replenish stocks and mobilize personnel to sustain aid operations. Inside Tigray, aid workers are now able to access areas previously hard-to-reach, with an estimated 75 per cent of people in need of assistance (4 million out of 5.2 million people in need) now in zones where humanitarian operations can take place, compared to 30 per cent in May. However, stocks are rapidly depleting inside Tigray, as road access to the region has been curtailed over the last weeks. Road access to Tigray is now only possible through Semera, in Afar Region, via Abala, with heavy control by regional and federal authorities. The UN Humanitarian Air Service received, on 5 July, approval from the Government of Ethiopia to recommence flights to Tigray, and final arrangements and operational details are now being worked out to resume the service. 

Meanwhile, violence and clashes reportedly broke out around 12 July south of Mai Tsebri, increasing concerns about the security of refugees and humanitarian workers in Mai Aini and Adi Harush camps. Across the rest of the region, the security situation remains calm but unpredictable, as declarations from all parties to the conflict indicates that the conflict could escalate again, especially in the western part of the region. In recent weeks, there have been increasing reports of ethnic violence against Tigrayans in different parts of the country, including arbitrary detentions and forced closure of business of individuals suspected to be aligned with the Tigrayan forces, particularly in Addis Ababa. Similarly, in Tigray Region, there have been reports of attacks on individuals suspected to have supported the Ethiopian National Defence Forces and the Eritrean Defence Forces. On 16 July, the Government’s Ethiopian Human Rights Commission publicly stated that it is “alarmed by reports of arbitrary detentions, attacks on civilians and refugees, inhumane treatment of detainees and captured combatants, and the use of child soldiers in Tigray.”

In addition to limited humanitarian assistance, access to basic needs—including health care and water and sanitation—remains severely constrained. Lack of banking system and cash, scarcity of fuel, and limited access to commodities, are affecting the ability of the population to cope. Many rural areas still have no electricity and/or communications. Families remain unable to contact missing or separated loved ones due to the communications blackout in large parts of the region, while services and/or supplies that are reliant on electricity are no longer functioning.

The ongoing agricultural season (June to September) offers an opportunity to contain the increasing hunger and malnutrition affecting millions of people in the region. However, without funding and sustainable access for aid agencies, the tight window of opportunity for farmers to get a crop in the ground and reboot local food production during this Kiremt/summer rainy season could be lost.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Visual

Humanitarian Access in Tigray

Access Map - Tigray Region

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. © OCHA

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Emergency Response

Humanitarian Preparedness and Response

Humanitarian partners in Tigray are working to scale up and sustain the ongoing response in Tigray but aid operations remain inadequate to meet the needs of over than 5.2 million people affected by the conflict in the region. 

On 12 July, a humanitarian convoy arrived in Tigray’s capital Mekelle, the first to reach the region in more than two weeks.The convoy of 54 trucks carried food and fuel, medical supplies and other vital relief items, which will be crucial to replenish stocks and provide life-saving assistance to hundreds of thousands of people. However, the supplies are far from adequate to sustain humanitarian assistance in the region, as at least 60 trucks should be arriving in Tigray daily to meet the needs of people caught up in the crisis. In addition, the restoration of basic services, electricity, communications, commercial flights and banking will be critical for civilians’ daily lives and prevent more harm to people in Tigray. 

Although 80 per cent of people in northern Ethiopia depend on subsistence agriculture, so far very little financial support has been allocated to agricultural interventions that can help at-risk families resume productive activity and produce food for themselves and their communities, according to FAO. The current rainy season (June-September) offers a tight window of opportunity for farmers to get a crop in the ground and reboot local food production, but without funding and speedy supply of agricultural inputs, that opportunity could be missed.

Despite administrative and operational challenges, since the conflict began, humanitarian partners have reached 4.8 million people with food assistance.  and protection. Humanitarians have provided some 568,047 people (21 per cent of the total 2.7 million people targeted for the year) with emergency shelter and non-food item (NFI) support. More than 630,000 people have received clean water through water trucking, and 55 mobile health and nutrition teams are providing services in 57 woredas. About 42,000 people were reached with psychosocial support activities in 11 woredas, while nearly 39,900 have received dignity kits support in 10 woredas.

Despite agencies’ reallocation of funds and new funding received, more than $430 million (half of the total requirement) is still required for the humanitarian response in Tigray until the end of the year.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Agriculture

Needs

  • With millions of people severely food insecure and hundreds of thousands facing famine-like conditions, support with agriculture inputs will be crucial to contain the hunger crisis and prevent a long-term catastrophe. In Tigray, most people depend on subsistence agriculture to survive.   

  • Although the meher planting season normally closes by the third week of July 2021, this year’s delayed commencement of the rains presents a tight window of opportunity for the provision of inputs to farmers. 

  • With the latest findings on food insecurity, relatively increased access inside Tigray, the Cluster is revising its targets from the initial 250,000 families to over 550,000 families, to cover the population facing severe hunger (IPC 3 and above). 

  • These families need short maturing live-saving crop inputs, including vegetables seeds, in addition to support to irrigation production, livestock vaccination, feed and poultry production, to facilitate own food production and income generation.

Response

  • About 343,273 quintals (a quintal equals 100 kilograms) of fertilizer was distributed to agricultural cooperative unions, of which about 241,000 quintals (70 per cent) was distributed to farmers.

  • About 53,700 quintals of improved agricultural inputs were distributed to more than 150,000 farming households (more than 750,000 people) across Central, Eastern, North Western, South Eastern and Southern Zones. The improved seeds include Teff, Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Barely, Vegetables and pulses. 

  • About 4,444 quintals of concentrated livestock feed and 226 quintals of different forage seeds were distributed to farmers. Animal vaccination campaign is ongoing.

  • The Agriculture Cluster is organizing with Logistics Cluster to transport seeds and fertilizers to the most war affected 11 woredas in the Central and Eastern zones as there is a window of opportunity to deliver these inputs in the next two weeks. 

Gaps

  • Severe funding gaps are impacting the response. 

  • The disruption of essential services including electricity, telephone, banking and fuel shortages are expected to slow the response actions. 

  • Fuel and cash limitation in transporting the agricultural inputs to woreda.

  • Communication constraints due to blackouts. 

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

Needs

  • More than two million people have been forced to flee their homes since the conflict began and are now sheltering in over 380 different sites across Tigray, Amhara and Afar Regions, in addition to those who crossed the border into Sudan.  

  • Humanitarians on the ground reported harsh and inadequate living conditions in the sites, with limited access to basic services, including water and sanitation facilities. 

  • The constrained supply pipelines—due to challenges to access Tigray from other parts of Ethiopia—and disruption of electricity is driving a significant reduction in water, food and cooking fuel across most sites hosting internally displaced people. 

  • Awareness campaigns and information about risks linked to unexploded explosive ordnance (UXO) and firearms in displacement sites are increasingly urgent, particularly after the explosion of one UXO in a camp in Shire. 

  • Information about possible relocations will likely be necessary, as internally displaced people have indicated willingness to return to their areas of origin, following the unilateral ceasefire declared by the Federal Government. 

Response

  • The CCCM Cluster, with support from representatives of the displaced communities, are closely monitoring supply needs and demands for all collective sites.

  • CCCM has engaged with the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to discuss mitigative measures that can be carried out across all displacement sites, including  physical inspection, and with UNICEF to increase information amongst people displaced related to identification, handling and disposal of UXO and similar objects.  The Cluster is also preparing a survey in Shire and Mekelle to determine number of people planning to return to their areas of origin in the coming weeks. In view of the anticipated returns the CCM cluster is going to carry out Intention survey. The Regional Disaster Risk Management Commission has endorsed the survey. 

Gaps

  • Funding is a pressing challenge, as well as the closure of financial institutions, which has affected the procurement of supplies. 

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Cluster Status

Education

Needs

  • No inputs provided by the cluster.

Response

  • No inputs provided by the cluster.

Gaps

  • No inputs provided by the cluster.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

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Cluster Status

Emergency Shelter & Non-Food Items

Needs

  • The conflict has uprooted hundreds of thousands of people across Tigray, leaving many in urgent need of emergency shelter and basic household items, including kitchen utensils, blankets, mats, among others. The new developments across the region, with relative calm in some areas, does not translate into a decreased need for shelter and non-food items. 

  • The high possibility of early and spontaneous returns of displaced people to their areas of origin increases the need for more shelter and return packages, particularly for those relocating back to villages and areas damaged or destroyed during the conflict. 

  • In addition, the Government plans to reopen schools in September 2021 will also require the distribution of shelter for hundreds of thousands of people who are now living in education centres across the region.

Response

  • As of 12 July, the Cluster reached some 568,047 people (21 per cent of the total 2.7 million targeted for the year). With completed, ongoing, and planned distributions, the Cluster could reach a total of 1 million people (36 per cent of the target) in the coming weeks. 

Gaps

  • While partners continue to gradually scale up, the response is insufficient to meet the needs of people affected, particularly in some woredas due to several factors, including: ongoing heavy rainfall in several locations amid the already substandard living conditions of displaced people; operational challenges, including lack of fuel, electricity, communication and financial capability; disruption of supply chains, including household consumables and humanitarian items; market functionality, including price inflation and limited supply against the increasing demands.

  • In addition, the insufficient food distribution forced displaced people to sell out non-food items received from aid organizations to buy food and other essential goods.

  • The ongoing tensions between Tigray and Amhara led to a disruption on the supplies of wooden poles—which were supplied from Amhara Region—hampering the construction of emergency shelter across the region. 

  • Due to communication disruption, partners reporting has dropped significantly.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

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Cluster Status

Food

Needs

  • According to the latest unendorsed Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis, without urgent and unimpeded food aid, over 400,000 people in Tigray region are projected to face catastrophic food insecurity (IPC 5, Catastrophe); and over 1.8 million people now in Emergency levels of acute food insecurity (IPC 4) in Tigray could slide into starvation. 

  • In view of the deteriorating hunger and nutrition situation, partners are revising their planning figures upwards to include additional needs identified on the ground.

  • The Food Cluster calls for urgent action to address the acute food insecurity in northern Ethiopia. Additional resources are urgently needed for partners to further scale up their operations and incorporate increased number of vulnerable families in emergency food assistance. 

Response

  • Since the launch of the first round of assistance under the Humanitarian Response Plan 2021 in late March, the three main food partners have assisted over 4.8 million people with 81,247 MT of food across Mekelle Town (384,263 people), Eastern (783,199), Western (61,771), Central (1,006,365), North-western (1,529,663), Southern (543,789) and South-Eastern (504,170) zones of Tigray under Round 1, as of 7 July. While Round 1 of distributions, which has been significantly delayed due to access challenges in many woredas, is being finalized, partners are simultaneously gearing up for the Round 2 distribution, which was launched in mid-May. For Round 2 distribution, 534,554 people have been assisted with 9,061 MT of food in Southern and North-western zones, as of 7 July.

  • During the reporting period (24 June - 07 July 2021), the food partners distributed 3,636 MT of food to 214,508 people under Round 1; and 153,004 people were assisted with 2,594 MT of food under Round 2.

  • The Government’s National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC) has allocated 10,839 MT of food for Round 1 of the 2021 Response Plan. As of 23 June, it had distributed 1,664 MT of food to 110,923 people in Ofla, Zata, and Raya Alamata woredas of the Southern Zone and 927 MT of food to 61,771 displaced people in Maykadra, Humera, and Dansha woredas of the Western Zone. 

  • JEOP is progressing with Round 1 distribution, with 58,847 MT (77 per cent) of the allocated food distributed, assisting nearly 3.5 million people as of 7 July. JEOP partners have also launched its Round 2 distribution, although partners’ activities have been negatively affected by the shortage of cash and fuel in the region.

  • WFP and its partners have completed their first round of distributions in most of its operational areas, with activities still ongoing only in Asgede. As of 7 July, WFP had distributed 19,809 MT of food to 1,168,733 people in Round 1. WFP is also conducting the second round of distribution, assisting 534,554 people with 9,061 MT of food in Korem, Raya Alamata and Ofla woredas of Southern Zone, as well as Sheraro Town, Endabaguna, Adi Hagery, Zana, Tahtay Adiabo, Seyemti Adiabo, Mai Tsberi , and Laeley Koraro/Selekleka woredas of North-western Zone, as of 7 July. 

  • Food and nutrition partners are working together to coordinate on dispatch/distribution timeline in jointly prioritized locations where integrated response, particularly involving food, nutrition, WASH and health activities, is urgently required.

Gaps

  • As of 12 July, with the arrival of humanitarian cargo convoys through Semera, food partners (excluding the Government as the detailed breakdown of the items is still to be confirmed) will only have enough food stock in Tigray Region to feed around 2.7 million people with common food basket for one round. 

  • Shortage of fuel and cash, lack of public electricity as well as non-functional banking systems and communication network in Tigray region are significantly hindering the resumption of food response by partners.

  • There are continuous delays in movement of humanitarian cargo due to checkpoints being set up on the main routes entering Tigray Region from other parts of the country.

  • The Cluster continues calling for concrete assurance and actionable support in ensuring that free and unimpeded humanitarian access are respected by all parties, and that no humanitarian actor faces reprisal for humanitarian efforts in Tigray. 

  • Efforts to reach areas that were previously inaccessible by humanitarians is critical. There is also need for continuously increasing international presence in the field, as humanitarians try to reach these areas. 

  • The flexibility for timely inclusion of verified vulnerable new caseloads in food assistance without quota limitation is urgently needed. 

  • Food partners are working with the current regional government to resolve the significant delay in government-led beneficiary registration and targeting in some woredas and Mekelle, which hindered the timely launch of planned food distribution. The delay is mainly due to the increasing needs on the ground which is often greater than the approved caseload quota, previously poor or non-existing local government structure, security concerns, and lack of documentation among the affected populations. In addition, has proven very challenging for food partners to have absolute clarity on the population figures per location at this stage of the response due to the fluid context, poor or non-existing local government structure, and lack of documentation among displaced population. 

  • Concerns over the size and composition of the current standard food basket as well as lack of cooking energy have also been raised by affected populations and partners. Some partners are exploring the possibility of providing full food basket and/or including transportation and milling costs in the food assistance package in prioritized locations. 

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Health

Needs

  • Healthcare services in Tigray are alarmingly limited, leaving with hundreds of thousands of people, including those injured during the fighting, pregnant women and survivors of sexual violence, without adequate access to essential medicines and basic attention.

  • Health facilities have been targeted, attacked and looted over the course of the conflict, and less than half of the referral hospitals of the region is now operative. There is an urgent need to support health facilities across the region to start operating with minimal activities.

  • A recent assessment in North-Western and Central Tigray, regions with the highest number of people facing severe hunger and malnutrition, found out that 9 out of the 10 health facilities visited in critical locations (Adigrat Hospital, Kisad Gaba Health Centre, Dedebit Health Post, Engabaguna Hospital, Adaga Hebret Health Centre, Hitsats Health Centre, Edaga Arbi Hospital, Nebelet Health Centre) had been looted ,with medical equipment destroyed.

  • With widespread looting and disruption of supply chain due to challenges to access Tigray, the Cluster needs urgent funding and access to replenish facilities across the entire region with medicines, consumables and medical equipment, to enable health workers to resume activities. 

  • With increased risk of disease outbreaks, including due to lack of access to water and sanitation, the Cluster needs to strengthen disease surveillance through early disease detection, as well as accelerate cholera and malaria readiness and completion of prepositioning of cholera supplies. In high-risk woredas, the Cluster needs to complete preparations for the second round of the vaccination campaign.

Response

  • The Cluster, with support from UNICEF and WHO, carried out a joint assessment mission to identify needs and gaps in North-Western and Central Tigray, in locations with reported high rates of malnutrition. Partners agreed with the Regional Health Bureau on the way forward to quickly resume activities in the areas, beginning with availing essential medicines for the provision of basic curative services, deliveries, disease surveillance, among others.

  • The first round of the cholera vaccination campaign has been finalized, reaching 2.1 million people out of the 4 million targeted. Partners have shared the results of the exercise with the Ethiopian Public Health Institute and finalized the plans for the round two of the campaign

  • At least three Inter-Agency Emergency Health Kits, with medication to treat over 30,000 people during three months, were provided to health partners across the region.

Gaps

  • Damages to health facilities, with equipment looted and vandalized, especially out of Mekelle, are severely impacting health workers capacity to resume services, amidst limited access to new supplies. Health facilities are facing important challenges with diagnostic capacity.

  • Although health staff are returning to work, there are still challenges in remuneration, as last salaries were received in May 2021.

  • The limited cash flow due to banking restrictions is affecting the implementation of response activities by health partners.

  • The ongoing interruption in telecommunications affect surveillance, data management and reporting.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Logistics

Needs

  • Increased dedicated transport capacity to reach more areas across the region.

Response

  • During the reporting period, the Logistics Cluster facilitated approximately 10 metric tons (MT) of humanitarian cargo inside Tigray on behalf of 2 partners.

  • Logistics training were conducted for partners in Mekelle and Shire.

  • The Logistics Cluster supports some 41 partners operating in Tigray.

Gaps

  • Ongoing insecurity and access constraints in some areas are hindering the transport of humanitarian cargo.

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Cluster Status

Nutrition

Needs

  • According to the latest IPC analysis released in June, malnutrition was expected to increase between July and September, especially in hard-to-reach rural communities affected by conflict. Purposive sampling surveys conducted  in  the  most  affected  kebeles  (non-representative)  showed  proxy  global  acute  malnutrition  (GAM) based on mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ranging from 20 per cent to 34 per cent across North-Western, Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Tigray.

Response

  • A total of 5,276 children between 6 and 59 months were screened for acute malnutrition, with 74 of them identified as severe wasting and enrolled for treatment, representing 1.4 per cent of those screened. In addition, 86 children were identified as moderate acute malnutrition, 1.6 per cent of children under age 5 screened. 

  • Some 738 pregnant and/or breastfeeding mothers were screened for malnutrition, with 164 or 22.2 per cent of them diagnosed with acute malnutrition.

  • At least 1,900 pregnant and/or breastfeeding mothers received one or two maternal, infant and young child feeding counselling, designed to prevent malnutrition. 

Gaps

  • Only 5 out of 20 nutrition partners were able to reach operational facilities and communities to collect and provide data for the current reporting week due to various challenges including no communication services, lack of cash and shortage of fuel. 

  • Partners are finding it challenging to access frontline staff and operational areas due to lack of communications, shortage of fuel and closure of banks in the region, resulting in a very low reporting rate and difficulties to scale-up response implementation.

  • Partners will appreciate availability of fuel and the reopening of banks with full services to scale up response for severe acute malnutrition in areas with high caseloads.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

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Cluster Status

Protection

Needs

  • Gross violations and abuses against civilians, including forced displacement and returns, killings, abductions, sexual violence and abuses, allegedly perpetrated by all parties to the conflict, have been reported since the beginning of the conflict in Tigray.

  • Reports of sexual violence are widespread across the region, with at least 100 cases reported daily over the last months. The numbers are likely higher, given that normal reporting structures are no longer in place. 

  • Women and children displaced are at heightened risk of abuses and exploitation, and the inadequate living conditions in collective centres for displaced people further exposing women and girls to sexual and gender-based violence (GBV). 

  • A recent Multi-Cluster Initial Rapid Assessment (MiRA) conducted at the beginning of June in Wajera Woreda, South-East Zone, shoed the dire need for GBV servicesin the area, in addition to dignity kits and sexual and reproductive health services, commodities and supplies for the local health facility.

Response

  • Partners working on prevention of GBV joined an inter-agency Rapid Response Mechanism during the reporting period to provide supplies for health facilities to boost the response, including through mobilizing dignity kits for distribution and reproductive health kits, with at least three Medical Management of Rape Kits.

  • Partners also continued with protection monitoring activities and a total of 256 individuals (122 women) were assisted through protection information and counselling services across 10 displacement sites.

  • In addition, nearly 40 people with specific needs, half of them women, are receiving support, while an additional 46 people, including 24 women, were identified and referred from displacement camps.

Gaps

  • Stocks of dignity kits, reproductive health and medical management kits are running low, and some have run out.

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Ethiopia - Tigray Region Humanitarian Update

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Cluster Status

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Needs

  • With access to water, hygiene and sanitation services largely disrupted across Tigray, the population is at heightened risk of disease outbreaks, including water-borne diseases.

  • Frequent power cuts hamper water supply and continuous functionality of water schemes across the region.

  • The situation is particularly dire in sites for internally displaced people, as the constrained supply pipelines—due to challenges to access Tigray from other parts of Ethiopia—and disruption of electricity and fuel to the pumps are driving a significant reduction in water availability.

Response

  • In total, over 630,000 people ga water since the beginning of the operations in Tigray. 

  • WASH partners are providing critical services, including water trucks, to 37 woredas across the region. Over the last weeks, about 29,000 m3 of water was provided in the Central and Eastern zones by WASH partners.

  • Across the region, nearly 3,400 women received critical dignity kits and another 4,000 people received WASH items, including jerricans, over the last weeks, while hygiene promotion activities in affected communities and displacement sites are ongoing.

  • In addition, partners rehabilitated 61 boreholes and motorized water systems. 

Gaps

  • Lack of fuel significantly hinders WASH interventions, in particular water-tankering operations and proper functionality of water supply schemes (generators).

  • Shortages of WASH supplies due to limited availability of NFIs at the local market and shortages of cash to replenish the stocks are limiting the response.

  • Communication challenges due to cut of mobile network and internet connections.

  • Government structure is not yet fully functional.

  •  WASH supplies, materials and infrastructure, equipment, vehicles, supplies and administrative offices have been looted in several locations.

  • There are budget constraints to fulfil WASH response across Tigray and more resources have to be mobilized.

  • Limited presence of WASH partners in the Central, South-Eastern, Southern and North-Western zones.

  • Market survey and application of cash vouchers for WASH NFIs and hygiene supplies are pending.

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