Ethiopia - Northern Ethiopia Humanitarian Update

Situation Report

Highlights

  • An estimated 9.4 million people need food assistance across northern Ethiopia due to the ongoing conflict.
  • Between 24-30 November, four convoys totalling 157 trucks with humanitarian supplies arrived in Mekelle.
  • In Afar, over 86,000 people have received food under the current round of assistance.
  • Partners are providing urgent assistance to the newly displaced people from the Western Zone in Tigray in Mai-Tsebri, Sheraro and Dedebit Woredas in the North-Western Zone.
  • Partners in Amhara continue to up response including food, nutrition interventions, health services, support to education, and prepositioning of stocks & commodities in the region.
Ethiopia
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Key Figures

8.1M
People targeted in Amhara, Afar and Tigray
63,110
Refugees in Sudan since 7 November

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Funding

$957M
Requirements Northern Ethiopia
$334M
Outstanding gap

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Contacts

Hayat Abu Saleh

Head, Strategic Communications Unit

Saviano Abreu

Head of Communications, Eastern and Southern Africa

Ethiopia - Northern Ethiopia Humanitarian Update

Situation Report
Background

Disclaimer

OCHA Ethiopia prepares this report with the support of Cluster Coordinators. The data/information collected covers the period from 23 – 29 November. In some cases, access and communication constraints mean that updates for the period are delayed and cannot be reflected. The next issue of the sitrep will be published on 9 December.   

 

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Results from the Northern Ethiopia Response Plan (since 1 May)

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Background

Situation Overview

The situation in northern Ethiopia remains precarious and volatile with the continuation of active hostilities in several locations leading to increased humanitarian needs and vulnerabilities due to large-scale displacement, loss of livelihoods and access to markets, food, and basic services. Humanitarian partners have limited or no access to a large segment of the population across the three affected regions, hampering the delivery of life-saving humanitarian assistance.

In Tigray, humanitarian access to the region slightly improved during the reporting period. Between 24-30 November, four convoys with 157 trucks with humanitarian supplies arrived in Mekelle, for the first time since 18 October. Fuel has not arrived in Tigray via the Afar route since 2 August, with eight tankers currently in Semera (Afar) waiting for clearance to proceed.

On 24 November, UNHAS resumed flights between Addis Ababa and Mekelle following their suspension on 22 October. A second flight took place on 25 November. UNHAS will be operating two flights per week from and to Mekelle. As a result, UN and humanitarian partners were able to rotate staff in and out of Tigray and transfer a limited amount of operational cash. 

WFP reported in a statement on 26 November that the number of people in need of humanitarian food assistance across northern Ethiopia has grown to an estimated 9.4 million as a direct result of conflict. Amhara Region has seen the largest increase of people in need with 3.7 million people now in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. The humanitarian situation in parts of Amhara, including North Wollo, Wag Hemra and parts of South Wello, as well as in conflict-affected areas in Afar, are of particular concern due to disruption of livelihoods and markets and lack of access to humanitarian assistance.  In Tigray region, 5.2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance, of which at least 400,000 are believed to be facing famine-like conditions.

In Amhara, new displacements continue to be reported due to the ongoing conflict. For example, the number of collective sites hosting IDPs in Debre Berhane increased from six to 10, despite three-quarters of those displaced are living within the host community. Similarly, the number of IDP sites in Kombolcha increased from two to 17 during the same period.

Following reports of large-scale displacement from Western Zone in Tigray to Mai-Tsebri, Sheraro and Dedebit Woredas in North-Western Zone since 20 November, preliminarily findings from an inter-agency assessment indicates that several thousand people arrived in Dedebit, 70 km west of Shire. The number is likely to increase as the flow of new arrivals continue. Most of the new arrivals are women, children, elderly, and sick people. It is estimated that about 1.2 million people were displaced from the Western Zone to other parts of Tigray, while more than 70,000 people were displaced to Sudan since the start of the conflict in November last year. 

In Afar Region, tens of thousands of people were reportedly displaced from the five western Kebeles of Chifra Woreda due to fighting. During the reporting period, a humanitarian assessment in two IDP sites (WAKE/50 and Waranso) in Chifra and Adarar Woredas found that the most urgent needs for the displaced population are food, shelter, NFIs, water, and access to health facilities.

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Humanitarian Access in northern Ethiopia

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Tigray Humanitarian Operational Capacity

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Emergency Response

Humanitarian Preparedness and Response

Using available but limited resources and fuel, humanitarian partners in Tigray assisted 5,000 new IDPs who arrived in the last week from Western zone to North-Western Zone with food and few hundred with NFIs. Provision of water trucking, NFIs, deployment of a mobile health team and an ambulance have been positioned to assist the new IDPs. This response, however, is insufficient due to lack of supplies, cash, and fuel to deliver the required aid to meet the most urgent needs. 

Despite significantly reduced capacity, partners in Tigray continued to deliver life-saving assistance and critical services across the region. From 46 to five partners active in seven Woredas, WASH partners for instance, reached more than 27,000 people with water trucking in the Central Zone, while health partners provided critical health services to more than 23,000 people. Food distribution operation is still lagging to reach the targeted population on time due to lack of fuel and supplies, but in total, partners have assisted about 179,000 people in few areas under the current round of food distribution. As schools continued to open in a phased approach in Tigray, with at least 220 schools re-opened to date, partners are supporting the Regional Educational Bureau with the reopening process through the development of a framework, tracking tool and a minimum package of services, and educational supplies.

In Amhara, partners are scaling up response including food, nutrition interventions, health services, support to education, and prepositioning of stocks and commodities in the region. On 29 November, more than 25,000 people in Dessie and more than 10,000 people in Kombolcha were reached with food in one day. More than 79,000 IDPs received essential health services during the reporting period. Nutrition supplies are stocked and preposition with current supplies sufficient to treat 13,000 children from severe acute malnutrition in the region. In support of education, partners constructed four temporary learning spaces during the reporting week in two Woredas while 42 tents provided for relocation of IDPs from two primary schools giving access to education to more than 6,000 children, including more than 3,000 girls. 

In Afar, partners also continue to scale up response including food, emergency nutrition and healthcare services through direct support to health facilities or through at least 24 mobile health and nutrition teams in the region and supporting children’s education via different interventions. More than 35,000 people received food assistance during the reporting period in Berahile Woreda in Zone 2, increasing the number of people assisted under the current distribution round to more than 86,000 people. Four basic medicine kits and four malaria medicine modules were provided to hospitals and health centers in the region. Families with school children reached with cash assistance to support more than 4,800 children’s education while water points constructed at schools, and stationery materials for alternative learning programs, and audio lessons provided to schools. 

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Emergency Response

Funding Update

The cumulative funding gap for both the Mid-Year Review of the Humanitarian Response Plan and the revised Northern Ethiopia Response Planstands at more than US$1.2 billion. An estimated $622 million has been mobilized towards the Northern Ethiopia Response Plan, and $596 million for response towards the Mid-Year Review Humanitarian Response Plan. However, this is far from sufficient to cover the increasing humanitarian needs.

Since the beginning of the year, $82.7 million has been received in firm contributions to the Ethiopia Humanitarian Fund (EHF) from 13 donors.  The funding balance increased due to additional funding of $9.2 ($4.6 pledges and $4.6 pipeline) from the governments of France, Denmark and Azerbajan. This increased the projected funding balance to $19.8 million. The continued support from donors demonstrates efforts to mobilize resources to enable humanitarian partners delivering assistance in conflict and natural disasters-affected region across the country. 

Humanitarian partners continue to do their utmost to implement humanitarian activities in most affected areas but continue to face challenges and operational constraints in delivering assistance across northern Ethiopia. Below are some common areas of concern, which were reported this week from across the clusters. Cluster-specific gaps are included following to the cross-cutting gaps. 

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Inter-sectoral gaps

Inter-sectoral gaps

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Cluster Status

Agriculture

Needs

  • Agricultural support needed for 3.7 million people in Tigray, 1.8 million people in Amhara, and 1.1 million people in Afar by the end of the year.

  • Scaling up animal health services to protect remaining livestock assets, maximizing dry season vegetable production, seed multiplication and supporting farmers to properly save seed in Tigray.

  • Rehabilitation and/or restoration of 100 partially damaged veterinary clinics across Tigray.

  • Provide emergency seed pack (cereals, legumes, vegetables, and maize) and fertilizer for 323,000 farm households (1.62 million people); animal feed provision and seed support to 88,000 farmers (440,000 people) in Tigray.

  • Support agricultural facilities damaged and looted due to the conflict in northern Ethiopia. 

  • Effective control of Desert Locust infestation and other agricultural diseases reported in Tigray and Afar regions.

Response

Gaps

  • Shortage of labour for the harvest as most young people left their districts in Tigray.

  • Lack of hand tools for harvesting hindering mobilizing labour from towns and IDP centers in Tigray.

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Cluster Status

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

Needs

  • 1.8 million people in Tigray need CCCM support.

  • Latrines desludging at IDP sites in Tigray.

  • Lack of critical medications for people with chronic diseases and skin infection at IDP sites in Tigray.

  • Safe and dignified relocations of IDPs from schools to alternative shelters in Tigray. 

  • Food, non-food items, cooking energy, milling support, drinking water, dignity kits, medications, and scholastic materials for the displaced children at IDP sites across northern Ethiopia. 

  • Additional spaces to reduce the risk of communicable diseases, including COVID-19, and to provide privacy and protection and critical medications for people with chronic diseases at IDP sites across northern Ethiopia and support mechanisms to people living with disabilities

Response

  • Assistance provided to the new IDPs who arrived in the last week from Western zone to North-Western Zone with food and 

  • NFIs. Provision of water trucking, NFIs, deployment of a mobile health team and an ambulance have been positioned to assist the new IDPs. Food distribution started for the recently identified and verified of more than 33,000 IDPs in Shire, Tigray

  • More than 900 people, including over 600 women, reached with awareness sessions on COVID-19 mitigating measures in Tigray.

Gaps

  • Lack of land, and construction materials in the local market, to construct alternative shelters for IDPs in Tigray.

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Cluster Status

Education

Needs

  • Access to education of an estimated 2.7 million children in northern Ethiopia is affected by destroyed/damaged schools and IDPs sheltering in schools.

  • Renovation of schools damaged or looted and clearance from explosive ordinance across northern Ethiopia.  

  • Awareness raising on landmines and explosive ordinance at schools.  

  • Scholastic materials, energy biscuits and school feeding, uniforms for students and psychosocial support for students and teachers across northern Ethiopia.

  • Alternative learning and recreational activities, and resilience programmes for children. 

  • WASH facilities and COVID-19 preventive measures at schools.  

Response

  • Families with school children in Adigrat and Adwa towns in Tigray reached with wheat flour, benefiting 170 children attending schools with nutritional support. 

  • More than 10,000 displaced children, including about 5,000 girls, are attending different educational programs in Shire IDP sites and Mai Tsebri Town, Tigray.

  • In Amhara, four temporary learning spaces were constructed in Chilga and East Dembia Woredas during the reporting week. At least 800 children, including 400 girls, had access to education as a result. 

  • Forty-two tents provided for the establishment of IDP shelters and the relocation of IDPs sheltered in Debark primary school and Ebenet primary school in Amhara. More than 5,200 children, including more than 2,600 girls, will have access to education as a result.  

  • Scholastic materials, including exercise books (4,416 pieces) and pens (7,500 pieces) were provided, benefitting 1,695 IDP children in Debark and Ebenet, Amhara.

  • Thirty-six people from Bahir Dar and Debre tabor Universities, the Amhara Regional Education Bureau and college teachers received training on mental health and psychosocial support. 

  • In Afar, 1330 households received the 6th round of cash assistance to support 4,826 children’s education. 

  • Construction works of 11 water points in schools were completed, while the construction of another 15 is ongoing. 

  • Stationery materials, conversations cards, manuals required for alternative learning program were transported to the Awash-Fentale project site to begin end of this week. 636 children will benefit from this program.

  • 4000 USB flashcards loaded with 500 Audio lessons of different subjects were made ready for distribution per school level.

Gaps

  • Power shortage and closure of the Regional Education Bureaus and Government offices in Afar lead to the suspension of most of education projects managed by partners. 

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Cluster Status

Emergency Shelter & Non-Food Items

Needs

  • Provision of ES/NFI to the newly displaced people from Western Zone to North-Western Zone in Tigray.

  • 4.2 million people need assistance with ES/NFIs in Tigray, including 2.1 million IDPs.

  • Adequate shelters and NFIs for IDPs living in highly congested and substandard living conditions and relocation of IDPs from schools to adequate alternative shelters across northern Ethiopia.

  • Shelter and NFI assistance for IDPs willing to return to areas of origin, and for IDPs currently living in the host community in Tigray.

  • Rental assistance schemes or other arrangements for IDPs living in host communities in Tigray.

  • Provision of emergency shelter and NFIs to newly displaced people across Tigray, Amhara and Afar.

  • Alternative shelters for IDPs from Western Zone in Tigray living in primary schools across the region.

  • Provision of additional shelters for the increased number of IDPs in North Shewa and North Wollo in Amhara are needed. The number of IDP collective sites in Debre Berhane increased from 6 to 10, while the majority, 75 per cent, of the displaced people are living with the host community. 

Response

  • 1,250 households assisted with in kind NFIs (in-kind), including IDPs, in Hawzen, Eastern Zone, Tigray.

  • About 8,000 people, of whom 51 per cent are women and girls, reached with ES/NFI items during the reporting period. This includes the newly displaced people in Mota and Debre Berhane, Amhara. 

Gaps

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Cluster Status

Food

Needs

  • An estimated 9.4 million people need food assistance in Northern Ethiopia, including IDPs and people in the host community.

  • Maintain timely and sustained food assistance including sustained flow of fuel, cash and supplies in Tigray

  • Food assistance will be required at least up to next year’s harvest season during the last quarter of 2022 in Tigray, as the agricultural planting season was missed in some parts of the region. 

Response

  • Between 18 - 24 November, 36,087 people were assisted with food in Mekelle and 22,284 people in Zana, North-Western Zone, Tigray.

  • In total, partners have assisted 179,159 people in Zana (North-Western), Zata (Southern) and Raya Alamata (Southern) zones as of 24 November under Round 3, which started in mid-October.

  • JEOP partners officially closed the Round 2 distribution in early November, however, some final dispatch and distribution are still to be accounted for and reconciled. As of 24 November, 2,459,459 people or 62 per cent of its planned caseload, have been assisted with food in Central, Eastern, Mekelle, Southern and South-Eastern zones. 

  • In Amhara, food partners assisted about 100,000 people in Dessie and Kombolcha towns since 24 November. 

  • Partners also distributed food in South Gondar (Lay Gayint, Tach Gayint, Semada), Wag Hamra (Dehana, Sahila and North Gondar) and seven Woredas in North Gondar, Amhara. This has increased the number of people assisted under to 577,495 in Amhara, which is an increase of 398,162 compared to previous week.

  • In Afar, 35,364 people received food assistance in Berahile Woreda in Zone 2, increasing the number of people assisted under Round 4 to more than 86,000 people. Partners will assist 534,000 people in zones 1, 2 and 4 in Afar with food.

Gaps

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Cluster Status

Health

Needs

  • 3.9 million people in Tigray need health services and interventions in Tigray.

  • Essential medical equipment, supplies, vaccines, and medicines including cholera kits, interagency emergency health kits (IEHKs), malaria and scabies medicines, SAM kits, and reproductive health kits needed in Tigray. No drugs and medical supplies arrived in Tigray during the reporting week.

  • Disease surveillance in Tigray indicate high cases of malaria, dysentery, and scabies. Medications for those disease are also needed. 

  • An estimated 888,000 children under five years in Tigray and more than 360,000 children in Amhara need polio oral vaccination. 790,000 children need measles vaccination in Tigray.

  • Nearly 30,000 HIV patients’ treatment is interrupted due to ongoing conflict and damages to health facilities in.

  • More than 500 health facilities, and 1,706 health posts are damaged and/or looted due to the conflict in Amhara Region that need rehabilitation and support.

  • 19 districts are affected by the ongoing conflict in Afar. Only 94 facilities, or 22 per cent of the 414 facilities, are functional, including 2 hospitals and, 31 health centers.

  • Provision of medications, treatment, and access to health services. Malaria, typhoid fever, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), dysentery and epidemic typhus were reported as top 5 diseases to the Regional Health Bureau in Afar.

Response

  • Eleven health partners, down from sixteen a week earlier, continued to provide lifesaving healthcare services through direct support to health facilities or through mobile health and nutrition teams in 24 Woredas, up from 16 woredas last week, in Mekelle, Central, Eastern, South-Eastern, and North-Western zones in Tigray. 

  • Disease surveillance activities in Tigray are ongoing with scabies and malaria registering the highest caseloads during the week. Scabies, malaria, SAM, and dysentery continued to be the major diseases reported in Tigray. 

  • In Amhara, 79,472 IDPs were provided essential health services during the reporting period, including 22,425 IDPs through the 20 mobile health and nutrition teams (MHNTs). 

  • Between 22 and 28 November, over 9,700 IDPs were provided with psychosocial education while mental health screening was conducted for 6,446 IDPs across IDP sites in Amhara region.

  • In Afar, 190 cases of SAM reported this week, of whom eight of them were admitted with medical complication. 

  • Four basic medicine kits and malaria medicine modules provided to Dubti Hospital, Asayita Hospital, Awash 40 and Afambo health centers in Afar. 

Gaps

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Cluster Status

Logistics

Needs

  • Improved access and security as well as additional access routes to transport the required humanitarian supplies within and into northern Ethiopia.

  • Warehouse capacity in Semera is 100 per cent full. Additional warehouse is needed to accommodate incoming cargo till dispatching supplies to Tigray once the movement restrictions are lifted.

Response

  • Between 25-30 November, the Logistics Cluster facilitated four convoy movements from Semera to Mekelle with 157 trucks, including 39 trucks facilitated by the Cluster on behalf of four partners.

  • Between 20 and 26 November, 6 trucks were loaded in Mekelle with 240 MT of NFIs on behalf of one partner. The trucks are planned to leave Mekelle to Shire in Tigray with fuel secured by the partner.

  • The Logistics Cluster expanded its footprint in Afar by deploying an additional staff in Semera.

Gaps

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Cluster Status

Nutrition

Needs

  • An estimated 1.6 million children under five years and pregnant and lactating women in Tigray and an estimated 1.4 million in Amhara and an estimated 80,000 in Afar need malnutrition preventative and treatment interventions.

  • About 1,700 children under five years and more than 500 pregnant and lactating women require therapeutic feeding support at IDP sites in Kombolcha, Amhara, where the number if IDP sites increased from two to 17. 

Response

  • In Tigray, nearly 46,000 children under five years were screened for malnutrition during the reporting period, 39 per cent more than those screened the week before, out of whom 761 children or 1.6 per cent were diagnosed with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). About 6,000 of them or 12.8 per cent were diagnosed with Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) compared to 20 per cent the week before. 

  • Similarly, 11,352 pregnant and lactating women were screened last week in Tigray, down from 18,835 screened the week prior, of whom more than 11,600 or 69 per cent were diagnosed with malnutrition. This rate is like that registered two weeks ago.

  • More than 7,900 pregnant and lactating women in Tigray benefited from infant and young child feeding counselling during the reporting period; 591 pregnant women received iron and folic acid supplementation; and 5,216 children under five years received Vitamin A supplementation.

  • In Afar, partners continued to provide emergency nutrition services and technical support through at least 24 MHNTs. 

  • 670 cartons of Ready for Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) were distributed to the conflict Woredas in Afar in the last two weeks. There are currently 3,500 cartons of RUTF in the regional warehouse sufficient to treat 3,500 severely malnourished children for the next two months.   

  • In Amhara, 13,208 children under five screened for malnutrition, of these 60 children were severely malnourished and 448 children were moderately malnutrition.  

  • Sixty-eight children suffering from severe acute malnutrition in Amhara begin outpatient treatment through MHNT. 

  • 802 children received Vitamin A supplement and 748 children de-wormed. 

  • More than 770 lactating women received infant counselling at IDP sites in Amhara, and more than 700 pregnant women provided with iron and folic acid supplements. 

  • More than 13,000 cartons of RUTF, and other therapeutic supplies dispatched to Amhara Region. These will be sufficient to treat more than 13, 000 children from severe acute malnutrition.  

  • More than 750 carton of high energy biscuits dispatched to Debre-Berhan and to the Regional Health Bureau in Amhara. 

Gaps

  • Additional staff and financial capacity needed to address increased needs in Kombolcha, Amhara.

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Cluster Status

Protection

Needs

  • An estimated 3 million people need protection in Tigray.

  • Identifications and documentation of unaccompanied and separated children and alternative care arrangement in Tigray.

  • Provision of protection services at IDP sites across northern Ethiopia, including child protection, GBV and SGBV prevention and response, and mental and psychosocial support.

  • NFIs, including aid devices for persons with disability, and dignity kits for women and girls across northern Ethiopia.

  • Comprehensive gender-based violence (GBV) services mapping and localized referral mechanisms, health services for survivors, risk mitigation and prevention activities in northern Ethiopia.

  • Scale up child protection services and referrals in all the three regions.

  • Material support (tents, recreational kits) to establish and strengthening new and existing child friendly spaces at IDP sites across northern Ethiopia. 

Response

  • 592 children, including 250 girls, with various child protection concerns identified and documented in 9 towns across Tigray.

  • 302 unaccompanied and separated children identified and documented in 7 towns in Tigray.

  • 5,303 children, including 263 girls, children, received mental health and psychosocial services by participating in supportive child friendly spaces and receiving basic support by community workers at Mekelle, Enderta, Maichew, Adigrat, Adwa, Axum, and Shire, Tigray.

  • 2,689 people, including 1,325 women, and community members reached with child protection communication messages in Mekelle, Shire, Axum, Adwa, Enderta, Maichew, RayaAzebo and Chercher, Tigray.

  • 19 women and 3 girls provided with structured mental health and psychosocial support in Tigray.

Gaps

  • Insufficient protection services, notably GBV case management and mental health and psychosocial support services and absence of child protection services in some areas across northern Ethiopia.

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Cluster Status

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Needs

  • About 9,300 water points or more than 54 per cent of the 17,080 water points in Tigray are not functional affecting more than 3.5 million people without having access to safe drinking water. Provision of fixing and maintaining water points is required.

  • In Tigray, about 418,000 IDPs living in 131 IDP sites requires 6,269 m3 of water daily or 313 water truck trips. This needs 2,200 liter of fuel.

  • Completion of WASH facilities in Mekelle Town, Eastern, Central and North-Western zones of Tigray.

  • Rehabilitation of sanitation facilities at schools used to shelter IDPs after their relocation across northern Ethiopia.

  • Adequate provision of WASH services to prevent disease outbreaks at IDP sites across northern Ethiopia.

  • WASH NFIs, and hygiene kits to IDPs living in shelters and with host communities. Currently there are 3,712 latrines with gap of 17,184 latrines at IDP collective sites across Tigray.

  • Installation of water storage tankers after being delivered to IDP sites in Amhara.

Response

  • More than 1,266,000 people reached with water supply in Tigray since April 2021.

  • During the reporting week, more than 27,000 people reached with water trucking in Enticho, Central Zone, and Mekelle, Tigray. 

  • More than 11,500 people reached with water via rehabilitation and maintenance of 38 hand pumps and construction of 5 emergency water distribution points and tap stands in Mekelle, Kolatemben, Keyihtekli and Adet Woredas in Central Zone, Tigray. 

  • Nearly 189,700 people reached through sanitation facilities including latrine, bathing, and handwashing facilities in Tigray.

  • More than 586,000 people reached with WASH NFIs including soap in response to Scabies risks in Tigray in the last few weeks.

  • 30,000 household water treatment products (Aqua tabs) were distributed in Sabacare 4 IDP site during the reporting period in Mekelle, Tigray. 

  • Nearly 27,000 people reached with sanitation and hygiene messages in Tigray during the reporting period.

  • In Afar, partners continued distribution of WASH supplies and water provision through water trucking from the few water points operated by generators during the reporting period. 

  • 15 water trucks provided water rationing in Semera, Logia, Dubti, Chifra, and Berahle with an average of 7.5 litres/person/day during the reporting period.

  • WASH supplies (jerrycans and soaps) delivered to over 26,000 IDPs and host communities in Chifra, Teru, Ewa, and Gega IDP sites in Afar during the reporting period.

Gaps

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