Libya

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Libya ranked fourth highest number of attacks against health infrastructure in the world - 32 reported attacks in 2020.
  • November: deadliest month in 2020 for migrants and refugees attempting the Mediterranean Sea crossing.
  • More than 4,100 people affected by floods in the east.
  • Local consultations for HRP held for east, south and west regions.
Rapid Response Mechanism distribution to flood victims in Albayda (WFP/LibAid)
Rapid Response Mechanism distribution to flood victims in Albayda (WFP/LibAid)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report

Key Figures

1M
People in need
0.3M
People targeted
392k
People displaced in Libya
585k
Migrants and refugees in Libya
318k
People reached

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report

Funding

$129.8M
Required
$116.5M
Received
90%
Progress
FTS

URL:

Downloaded:

Contacts

Justin Brady

Head of Office

Jennifer Bose Ratka

Public Information Officer

Libya

Situation Report
Background

Protection risks remain a concern in Libya

In November, a number of attacks against health facilities and health personnel, as well as other civilians -including migrants, refugees and asylum seekers-, underscores the risks posed from continued insecurity, an absence or enforcement of the rule of law, or respect for human rights.

A number of acts of violence against health facilities and health personnel were reported in November. This includes attacks by armed groups on Bani Waleed General Hospital and Sabratha isolation centre, damage to a primary healthcare facility in Murzuq from arson, and an ambulance that was stopped at a checkpoint by an armed group near Misrata that was unable to continue to its destination. This brings the total number of attacks against health infrastructure in Libya to 32 for 2020 by the end of November. These attacks put further pressure on the already struggling health system. Libya is ranked fourth globally for the number of recorded attacks against health facilities and personnel in 2020. On 1 December, a well-known orthopaedic surgeon and the deputy head of al-Khadra Hospital in Tripoli, was abducted by an armed group. His release was secured by the authorities on 5 December.

On 10 November, a 15-year-old Eritrean asylum seeker was killed, and two others were injured when armed men entered the property they were staying in and started shooting. The young victim was waiting resettlement out of Libya to a third country. This follows other incidents this year where migrants and refugees have been killed or injured; many others have been arbitrarily detained. The Humanitarian Coordinator for Libya, Mr. Yacoub El Hillo, released a statement condemning the event and calling on the authorities to fully investigate the incident and hold those responsible to account.

Explosive hazards, particularly in southern Tripoli, continue to present grave risks to people’s safety and security, particularly for people wishing to return to their homes. As of 7 December, more than 108 reported accidents involving explosive hazards have been reported. This has resulted in 73 people being killed and another 133 people injured, 66 per cent of which were civilians.

* As of 7 December 2020

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Background

November deadliest month for Libyan-Mediterranean crossing in 2020

Migrants and refugees have continued to attempt the Mediterranean Sea crossing, with more than 1,700 people being intercepted at sea and returned to Libya in November. This is a significant increase compared to the same period last year where only 719 were reported to have been intercepted and returned to Libya.

While good weather in early November is likely to have contributed to a higher rate of departure, global economic repercussions in countries of origin and in Libya are a contributing factor in the search for better livelihoods. For 2020, more than 11,800 migrants and refugees have been intercepted at sea and returned.

 

Since the beginning of the year, at least 900 people have drowned in the Mediterranean trying to reach European shores. November has been the deadliest month of the year for migrants trying to cross to Europe from Libya. At least 84 bodies washed ashore this month and 77 people remain missing following a series of deadly shipwrecks.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Emergency Response

3,400 people received assistance following flooding in Al Jabal Al Akhdar

In November and early December, heavy rainfall caused flooding in serval parts of Al Jabal Al Akhdar mantika in the country’s eastern region.

On 8 November, heavy rainfall was reported in Al Jabal Al Akhdar mantika that caused flooding that severely affected more than 3,400 people in Albayda, Alqubba, Labraq and Shahat. Many homes were inundated and drainage channels were blocked, causing closure to key roads and intersections in several neighborhoods. Several public health facilities, including Al-Tharwa hospital in Albayda city, reported damage from the rain and flood waters, requiring repairs.

Humanitarian partners, including through the Rapid Response Mechanism, provided food, blankets, kitchen sets, hygiene kits and other relief items to those households that were affected.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Flooding due to heavy rains in Al Jabal Al Akhdar (source: OCHA)

Flooding due to heavy rains in Al Jabal Al Akhdar (source: OCHA)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Analysis

COVID-19 slows but remains a threat

As of 30 November, there were 83,417 confirmed cases and 1,196 deaths. This is a 34 per cent increase in the number of confirmed cases reported as of October. While the overall number of cases has increased, the spread of transmission slowed in November, with 19 per cent less confirmed cases than in October.

Tripoli and Benghazi are classified as low intensity community transmission, while other locations are either classified as having clusters of cases or imported/sporadic cases. According to testing undertaken across the 27 laboratories operating in the country, Libya has 1,300 confirmed cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population, which is the highest in the North African region, with 18.5 deaths per 100,000 population, which is second only to Tunisia in the region.

At a time when we need to focus efforts on combatting COVID-19, the continued closure of primary health care facilities due to shortages of health care workers, power cuts and lack of personal protective equipment affects not just the ability to effectively combat the virus but also for people to continue to access other essential health services.

Health partners continue to support the authorities in combatting the virus and mitigating its spread through provision of technical guidance and support, provision of essential medical and testing supplies, as well as personal protective equipment, and conducting training and capacity building to staff in health facilities and rapid response teams.

WHO has reported that mental health conditions have likely significantly increased across Libya, as a result of the protracted conflict, coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic. They estimate that one in seven Libyans – approximately one million people – require mental health care support for conditions such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders. At present, only five cities (Tripoli, Bengahzi, Sebha, Ejdabia and Misrata) have mental health services. WHO will shortly begin implementing a two-year project to strengthen mental health services throughout the country.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

COVID-19 transmission classification in Libya by mantika (as of 19 November 2020) (source: WHO)

COVID-19 transmission classification in Libya by mantika (as of 19 November 2020) (source: WHO)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Feature
Regional consultations in Tripoli (Naserddin Dekakni/OCHA Libya)
Regional consultations in Tripoli (Naserddin Dekakni/OCHA Libya)

National consultations on humanitarian programme planning kicked off

Humanitarian planning for next year is in its advanced stages and as part of efforts by the international humanitarian community to engage and incorporate local views, a series of consultations took place with local stakeholders, including government, non-government and civil society. Consultations were conducted for all regions, beginning with stakeholders in the west on 11 November and continuing with partners in the east and south on 22-23 November.

The meetings, undertaken as a series of small interactive sessions to respect COVID-19 prevention measures, included stakeholders from the relevant national and local authorities, including the General Desalination Company of Libya, the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Ministry of IDPs, the National Oil Corporation, the Ministry of Health, as well as the Libyan Red Crescent and Libyan civil society and NGOs.

The purpose of the consultations was to identify and discuss how humanitarian needs have changed over 2020 and the potential ways for the international humanitarian organizations, local partners and authorities to address them in the coming year.

Although 2020 presented major challenges, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the humanitarian community and local counterparts in all regions agreed that the rate of cooperation and communication has improved in comparison to previous years. However, the security situation, accessibility and bureaucratic procedures were highlighted as constraints that were faced not only by international organizations but also local counterparts and government entities.

Key takeaways from the western region discussions included the need for improved data sharing and analysis, better preparedness for internal displacement and emergencies, addressing weak governance and complex bureaucratic procedures, demining, and establishing a common coordination mechanism.

Discussions in the eastern region highlighted the need for warehouses placed in strategic locations to enhance rapid mobilization of assistance and responding to those identified to be in need of assistance. The importance of preparedness plans, joint coordination, capacity building, cash assistance, identification of needs, assistance to and return of IDPs, and care for people with disabilities was also discussed.

Discussions in both the west and east also agreed on the need for greater focus on Sirte, having witnessed several armed clashes in 2020 that severely affected the local communities.

In the south, participants agreed that the security situation remains the main obstacle to effectively implement humanitarian and development programmes. The discussion focused on the importance of improving living standards and securing people’s basic needs. A preparedness plan for any potential future conflict was also recommended, including training emergency teams, needs assessments, and identifying emergency warehouses across the southern municipalities. The need to strengthen protection programmes, activate the coordination mechanism, create livelihoods, and distribute aid equally was also discussed.

All regions underlined the need to consider the special needs of vulnerable groups and the types of assistance that can easily be overlooked, such as psychosocial support.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Access

Visas: A critical gateway to saving lives

Access is a fundamental pre-requisite to an effective humanitarian action. The rationale for humanitarian access is as simple as this: without the ability to reach people affected by crisis, aid agencies cannot provide assistance. However, a wide range of constraints on humanitarian access exist in Libya, including an insecure environment, restriction of movement and bureaucratic requirements, including the delay and difficulties of obtaining visas for staff of humanitarian organizations.

Visa constraints continued to be the main impediment for the humanitarian community, representing nearly 36 per cent of all reported access constraints in October, with most international non-governmental organization (INGOs) not receiving visas for international staff for eight months or more. Following a meeting between the Humanitarian Coordinator and the Minister of Interior, significant progress was made with many visas being issued to INGO staff. One of them was issued to Samy Guessabi, Director of Action Against Hunger, enabling him to travel to Libya for the first time since the Libya office was established in November 2019.

“Being able to enter Libya has had a tremendous impact. I am able to meet with the relevant authorities on the ground and engage with them directly. But it also helped me see things differently. Tripoli and Benghazi are cities full of life, people have a lot of energy to change their own future and lead a life in normalcy. The youth is extremely energetic and willing to support their cities and their country. I think despite the constraints and difficulties, it is our responsibility to provide a different image of Libya to the world,” he says. Despite the process, many visas issued are short in duration and some visas requests remain outstanding. “I am currently only able to stay for six weeks. I will now apply for a longer-term visa and also for visas for my other staff members”, Guessabi says.

“Full and unimpeded humanitarian access is essential to establish operations, move goods and staff where they are needed, implement aid distributions, and help affected people to fully benefit from the assistance and services made available,” says Osaid Al-Marwani, Head of the Humanitarian Access Unit in OCHA and co-chair of the Humanitarian Access Working Group. “The visa constraints that INGOs are facing have significantly impacted their program oversight, coordination and engagement with authorities. In order to achieve a lasting change, it is critical that the national authorities support establishing clear and transparent visa processes for INGOs to facilitate their effective delivery of humanitarian assistance to those in need”.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Access

Humanitarian access in Libya

In November, a total of 355 access constraints were reported by humanitarian partners, consistent with the number of constraints recorded in the previous month. Of the total number of reported constraints, 52 per cent were related to bureaucratic restrictions on movements of humanitarian personnel and supplies into Libya. Despite relative progress achieved in October, visa constraints impeding INGO staff continue to represent the vast majority (approximately 71 per cent) of reported restrictions on movements into the country. The Humanitarian Access Working Group (HAWG) is working closely with the Commission for Civil Society, the main government entity overseeing civil society in Libya, to garner support for a clear framework for visa processes.

A predictable and sustainable system for the importation of health items is also urgently needed. Import delays in Misrata Airport and Benghazi Seaport continued. Similar to the previous six months, the Health Sector has been the most impacted by access constraints, representing 36 per cent of reported sector-related constraints. This included reports of attacks against health facilities and instances of aid diversion.

Bureaucratic restrictions of movements within Libya continued to be the second most reported type of constraint, making up 25 per cent of all reported constraints. Constraints included, stringent internal security procedures, delays in obtaining clearances for movements between municipalities due to COVID-19 related restrictions and the limited operation presence of international humanitarian partners.

There were four incidents involving interference in the implementation of humanitarian activities in November. Three of the reported incidents involved migrants and refugees in detention centers and disembarkation points in the West and one incident concerned the threat of eviction of over 90 vulnerable families in Janzur Municipality. Mantikas in the west (43 per cent of total constraints) continued to be the most heavily affected, followed by the east (33 per cent) and the south (24 per cent). Tripoli and Benghazi represented more than a third of all constraints reported.

URL:

Downloaded: