Libya

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Spotlight on supporting safe and dignified housing for Returns.
  • Migrants continue to struggle with job and food security.
  • COVID-19 vaccination rates on the rise.
  • Bureaucratic restrictions limit access for international NGO staff.
  • Coordination Activity Report.
Distribution of NFIs (UNHCR)
Distribution of NFIs (UNHCR)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report

Key Figures

1.3M
People in need
0.5M
People targeted
212k
People displaced in Libya
598k
Migrants and refugees in Libya
408k
People reached

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report

Funding

$189.1M
Required
$138M
Received
73%
Progress
FTS

URL:

Downloaded:

Contacts

Justin Brady

Head of Office

Jennifer Bose Ratka

Public Information Officer

Libya

Situation Report
Background
Damaged housing in the Al Sabri neighborhood, Benghazi (UNHCR)
Damaged housing in the Al Sabri neighborhood, Benghazi (UNHCR)

Spotlight on supporting safe and dignified housing for returns

The beginning of 2021 witnessed general improvements in the security situation, opening access for displaced Libyans to return to their areas of origin. Nearly 65,000 displaced persons have returned since the start of the year, reducing the number of internally displaced people from 278,000 in December 2020 to 213,000 by the end of June 2021. Some 88 per cent of the displaced returned to their original homes, many of which were significantly damaged during the conflict, while thousands of Libyans are still unable to return due to damaged homes and the lack of basic services, such as electricity, water supply and waste management facilities. As reported in IOM’s DTM Round 37, damage to public infrastructure and housing remain the main obstacles preventing the return of most families displaced in Libya.

Not all returns have been voluntary, as evictions, especially from IDP settlements, leave vulnerable populations with limited choices to either source housing at prohibitive rates or to return to their place of origin, often with no support from the government. The presence and risk of exposure to explosive hazards coupled with the lack of a government strategy on rehabilitating basic services, have added extra demands on the Shelter/Non-food Items (SNFI) sector, as support for shelter remains a top priority among affected populations. This is especially the case in Tawergha, where more families are returning despite the area having suffered extensive damage over the past decade. With the national budget for Libya yet to be approved and rehabilitation funds directed to a limited number of areas through special measures, there is little clarity on the type of assistance or compensation many displaced people can expect from the government to rebuild their communities.

The Shelter/NFI sector, chaired by UNHCR, works with three main implementing partners in the housing sector: Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), UNHCR and Danish Refugee Council (DRC), repairing houses in areas around Tripoli and Benghazi and aims to assist more than 5,000 people in 2021.

In the 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP), the sector identified 374,000 people in need of shelter and or NFI support, through the implementation of seven projects across Libya, with the aim of improving physical living conditions, promoting a dignified and safe access to adequate and secure accommodation, as well as building resilience of targeted populations by improving living conditions. In addition, the SNFI sector distributes core relief items for migrants and refugees at disembarkation points and those held in detention centers. The SNFI sector also recently partnered with the Protection sector to assess and ensure targeted assistance for those affected by evictions.

With the rate of returns this year, the SNFI sector has focused on ensuring that initial surveys on housing requirements are being completed to help to identify the type of support required. Current planning includes projects involving housing rehabilitation; technical assessments in informal sites and shelter units for IDPs, and migrant settlements; and basic repairs for infrastructure, such as water pumping stations and health facilities. NRC, in partnership with UNHCR, will rehabilitate some 65 houses in the Al Sabri neighborhood in Benghazi, which suffered considerable damage and is currently implementing several infrastructure projects in Tripoli and Benghazi. In addition, the cash for rent modality has proven to be a successful form of assistance. The sector has also been distributing winterization kits for households to prepare for the winter months, with the provision of essential household items, such as, heating/insolation needs, blankets, clothing, etc.

To date, the SNFI sector has reached more than 84,000 people, 44 per cent of whom are IDPs, with NFI and basic shelter assistance. Focus on returnee locations also requires targeted attention in building national capabilities, to ensure that the necessary infrastructures to enable safe and dignified living standards are in place.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Analysis

Migrants continue to struggle with job and food insecurity

The number of migrants in Libya remained stable compared to previous months at 597,611 from over 40 nationalities, while the total number of migrants in Libya currently remains lower compared to pre-pandemic levels. It is estimated that of the 88 per cent that migrate to Libya for economic reasons, 20 per cent remain unemployed and unable to meet their basic needs. Furthermore, unemployment is most severe among migrants who have arrived in Libya more recently. With migrants engaging mainly in informal work, restrictions due to COVID-19 posed limitations to finding regular work opportunities, further creating job insecurity and the implementation of negative coping mechanisms.

Past IOM/DTM studies have confirmed that migrants who have arrived more recently in Libya are generally less established and may be unable to rely on a local network for assistance. Having newly arrived has therefore been identified as a significant risk factor adding to migrants’ vulnerability at the individual level. A joint WFP-IOM food security report, states that migrants living in Libya for less than six months were identified as being more vulnerable to food insecurity. Food consumption levels, which are measured by the frequency and diversity of foods consumed over the past seven days, were generally lower among migrants who had arrived more recently in Libya than those who had been in the country for longer than six months.

The number of migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea, while only a minority of the total migrant population in Libya, continued to increase significantly during the reporting period. As of 11 September, among those who attempted to cross the Mediterranean, over 23,600 people were returned to Libya while 449 people died and 654 went missing. Overall, the number of returns to Libya recorded on maritime routes to Europe more than doubled in the first half of 2021 compared to all of 2020. 

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Number of migrants per region (mantikas) (IOM’s DTM Round 37)

Number of migrants per region (mantikas) (IOM’s DTM Round 37)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Analysis

COVID-19 Vaccination rates on the rise

As of 15 September, the National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) reported 328,856 cumulative COVID-19 cases, including 4,480 deaths and 80,704 active cases. In comparison to July, a decrease of seven per cent in the number of confirmed cases was reported in August.

Since end July, vaccination campaigns initiated by the NCDC and the Ministry of Health, with support from WHO, UNICEF and IOM, were enhanced with the opening of new vaccination centers across Libya and the suspension of the online registration platform, facilitating free access to all Libyans to get vaccinated. A vaccination drive for migrants and refugees is also under discussion by the Government. More than 1.27 million people have received one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, and over 145,000 people are fully vaccinated. If Libya aims to fully vaccinate 40 per cent of the population by the end of 2021, there is a need to scale up the administration rate five-fold to reach 50,000 administrated doses per day, including for non-Libyans (refugees, migrants).

In August, there was a 20 per cent increase in overall national testing, with all 36 COVID-19 labs reporting a total of 217,948 tests. Although the majority of tests were performed in the West region, the East region saw an increase by 212 per cent in testing. Latest figures indicate that the highest transmission now exists in the South region (44 per cent), followed by East and then West, signifying the need for sustaining the previous testing levels, especially in the East and South. The highest case incidences per 100,000 were recorded in Tripoli and Nalut for West, Aljufra, Ghat and Sabha in South and Alkufra and Derna in East. Libyan health authorities have not officially confirmed presence of the Delta variant. However, Delta is suspected because of its confirmed circulation in neighboring Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria. Neighboring Sudan has reported a Gamma variant. Libya remains classified under community transmission (high to very high incidence) with Alpha and Beta Variants of Concern (VOC) in circulation.

In total, over 3.8 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Libya. Another 3 million doses of the Sinopharm vaccine are expected to arrive in the country in the coming weeks. The average national rate of daily administrated doses stands at around 10,000 doses per day. 

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Number of COVID-19 Laboratory tests performed vs confirmed positive cases per Epi-Weeks (WHO)

Number of COVID-19 Laboratory tests performed vs confirmed positive cases per Epi-Weeks (WHO)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Access

Bureaucratic restrictions limit access for international NGO staff

A nine per cent decrease from July 2021 was noted in the number of access constraints reported by humanitarian partners through the Access Monitoring and Reporting Framework (AMRF), bringing the total number of access constraints reported in August to 139. Although access constraints have continued a positive downward trend, the severity of access constraints related to visas for international NGO staff increased significantly, posing critical impediments for the continuity of humanitarian activities. Bureaucratic restrictions on the movement of humanitarian staff and relief items into and within the country continue to make up the majority marking 63 per cent of the total access impediments reported. Resolution of the current impasse depends on national authorities, who have yet to provide any indication of addressing the visa situation or providing a clear process that can ensure the consistent delivery of visas in the future.

Out of the total access constraints reported in August, 31 constraints (22 per cent) were related to a lack of operational presence by humanitarian partners mainly due to security concerns among several other reasons. There were also reports of five incidents involving interference in the implementation of humanitarian activities.

Of the total, 37 per cent of constraints impacted humanitarian sector activities. Mine Action and Protection were the two most-impacted sectors with 33% and 27% of the total access impediments respectively. In terms of mantikas, the least number of access constraints (26 per cent) were reported in mantikas of the East region followed by mantikas in the South and West with 36% and 38% of all reported constraints respectively. Tripoli and Sebha were the two mantikas that reported the biggest number of access challenges accounting together for a third of the reported access constraints in August 2021.

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Access constraints related to lack of visas for international staff in 2021 (OCHA)

Access constraints related to lack of visas for international staff in 2021 (OCHA)

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Coordination

Coordination Activity Report: August – September 2021

Highlights:

  • Between August and September, a total of 19 different coordination meetings were completed. These include: a meeting with Murzuq community leaders to discuss the situation of Murzuq IDPs in East Libya and their needs on 2 September; a meeting with NRC Country Director and UN agencies in East Libya to improve coordination and information sharing on 18 August.

  • A total of three missions were planned during this period, including UN Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator mission to Benghazi.

  • Training: OCHA/IOM Protection in Humanitarian Coordination Training was concluded in the Eastern and Western regions (Two sessions in total). 

URL:

Downloaded:

Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Overview of OCHA’s activities for August to September 2021

Overview of OCHA’s activities for August to September 2021

URL:

Downloaded: