Mozambique

Situation Report

Highlights

  • The conflict in Cabo Delgado, coupled with recurrent climatic shocks, continues to drive massive displacement & the fast deterioration of the humanitarian situation in the region.
  • Nearly 670,000 people were internally displaced in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula by the end of 2020.
  • Almost 580,000 people were uprooted from their homes in 2020 alone, as violence in the province expanded geographically and increased in intensity.
  • Cholera in Cabo Delgado and COVID-19 across the country continue to challenge the weak health system, amid extremely limited access to water, sanitation and hygiene services.
  • More than 2.7 million people faced severe acute food insecurity in Mozambique in the last quarter of 2020, at least 840,000 of them in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula alone.
Displaced people in Montepuez District, in Cabo Delgado, receive humanitarian assistance provided by WFP and partners
Displaced people in Montepuez District, in Cabo Delgado, receive humanitarian assistance provided by WFP and partners. The voucher programme allow beneficiaries to access essential supplies, including food, hygiene and cirtical household items. Photo: UN / Helvisney Cardoso

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Key Figures

7.9M
people in need (COVID-19 Flash Appeal)
712K
people in need in Cabo Delgado
2.96M
people targeted (COVID-19 Flash Appeal)
354K
people targeted in Cabo Delgado

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Funding

$68.1M
Required (COVID-19 Flash Appeal)
$35.4M
Required (Cabo Delgado Plan)
$62.4M
Received (COVID-19 Flash Appeal)
$45.6M
Received (Cabo Delgado Plan)

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Contacts

Sergio Dinoi

Head of Humanitarian Advisory Team, Mozambique

Saviano Abreu

Communications Team Leader

Mozambique

Situation Report
Background

SITUATION OVERVIEW

HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONFLICT IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

The ongoing armed conflict, compounded by climatic shocks, recurrent disease outbreaks and deep-rooted poverty, has left over a million people in urgent humanitarian assistance and protection in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula. The rapid escalation of the conflict in northern Mozambique had left, by the end of 2020, nearly 670,000 people internally displaced in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula. Almost 580,000 people were uprooted from their homes in 2020 alone, as the number of attacks by non-state armed groups, including killings, beheadings and kidnappings expanded geographically and increased in intensity. According to the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED), more than 570 violent incidents registered from January to December 2020.

In Cabo Delgado, internally displaced people continue to concentrate in the southern and western districts due to security and access to humanitarian assistance. At least 72 per cent of the people displaced in Cabo Delgado are hosted in Pemba (144,467 people), Metuge (114,418), Mueda (66,127), Ancuabe (56,555), and Montepuez (54,008). More than 90 per cent of people who fled the conflict are staying with family and friends in host communities. However, the situation is putting immense strain on the already meagre resources of host communities.

Nearly 840,000 people in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula were facing severe hunger by the end of the year, as the conflict and repeated displacement have interrupted communities’ agricultural activities, destroyed livelihoods and disrupted markets. Insecurity has driven up the cost of essential commodities, with food prices reportedly skyrocketing in many parts of Cabo Delgado, especially in areas particularly affected by the conflict, including Palma District, Macomia and Mocimboa da Praia. In addition, two out of every five children in the Province are chronically malnourished and more cases of severe acute malnutrition are being detected amongst the displaced population, according to UNICEF. Across the country, an estimated 2.7 million people faced high levels of acute food insecurity in rural (1.9 million people) and urban areas (0.8 million) between October and December 2020, according to the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

Cholera cases are increasing in Cabo Delgado, especially amongst displaced people, amidst severe disruption of health, water, sanitation and hygiene services. Insecurity has damaged or destroyed 36 per cent of health facilities across the Province and, by the end of 2020, there were no functional clinics in the districts hardest-hit by conflict (Mocimboa da Praia, Macomia, Muidumbe and Quissanga). This exacerbates the acute lack of access to clean water across Cabo Delgado, increasing the risk of diseases, including cholera and COVID-19, and hampers Government and humanitarians’ capacity to provide critical care, such as sexual and reproductive healthcare, immunization activities, access to antiretrovirals for people living with HIV and treatment for tuberculosis.

The increased number of attacks also impacted humanitarian assistance, despite the growing needs. Access to people affected widely reduced in 2020, especially in the northern districts of Cabo Delgado, and humanitarian organizations faced extraordinary challenges to operate, either due to the insecurity itself, infrastructure or administrative obstacles. Several attacks reported over the last few months on district capitals (Mocimboa da Praia, Quissanga, Muidumbe and Macomia districts) forced many humanitarian actors to temporarily relocate from vital hub locations into the southern districts of Cabo Delgado, reducing their ability to assess and respond to the rising needs. At the same time, transport is particularly difficult throughout the Province, as roads and infrastructure are in poor conditions.

COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Mozambique continued to report a growing number of new COVID-19 transmissions in the last quarter of 2020. At the end of the year, more than 18,300 people had contracted the virus and more than 160 had died from the disease. The pandemic is stretching the already fragile health system while the country also deals with other endemic disease outbreaks, including malaria, measles and rubella in different parts and cholera in Cabo Delgado.

With limited access to essential services, including healthcare, water, hygiene and protection services, as well as livelihood opportunities, the displaced population are particularly at risk of contracting COVID-19 and suffering the humanitarian consequences of the pandemic. The situation is also concerning for the population of the major cities across the country, as access to clean water and appropriate sanitation is a major challenge for most of the 80 per cent of urban dwellers who live in informal settlements. The pandemic had an unprecedented impact on education, with school closures affecting 8.5 million students.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Mozambique continues to experience recurrent climatic shocks, including tropical storms, flooding and back-to-back droughts in the southern part of the country. At the end of 2020, Tropical Storm Chalane made landfall in Muanza District, in Mozambique’s Sofala Province, leaving more than 3,000 people affected. More than 270 families living in settlements for survivors of Cyclone Idai—which hit the same area in March 2019—lost their shelter. In addition, another 2,500 people living in resettlement sites in Sofala need shelter support, after heavy rainfall and strong winds from 25 to 28 November destroyed their homes, according to an assessment conducted by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC).

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

668,000
People Displaced - Cabo Delgado's conflict

Needs

  • Increasing violence in Cabo Delgado continues to drive massive displacement. According to the latest IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) assessment, by the end of 2020, nearly 670,000 people were internally displaced in Cabo Delgado (607,100), Nampula (59,960) and Niassa (978). Almost 580,000 people were uprooted from their homes in 2020 alone. In addition, over 1,200 people have been displaced by violence in Sofala (134) and Zambezia (1,084) provinces.

  • Overall, trends since June 2020 denote a progressive increase in the number of internally displaced people in all districts in Cabo Delgado Province, except for Palma (decrease of 33 per cent - 11,565 individuals), Ancuabe (decrease of 872 individuals), and Pemba (decrease of 1,957 individuals).

  • More than 90 per cent of people displaced in Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa, Zambezia and Sofala provinces live with friends and relatives, while a small percentage of families live in temporary shelters, formal and informal sites or in partially destroyed houses.

  • Finally, according to the DTM assessment, the top three priority needs identified for people displaced in Cabo Delgado were food assistance (95 per cent of localities), shelter (90 per cent) and access to safe drinking water (38 per cent). These results are consistent with the trends observed in previous assessments. Additional priority needs identified in localities hosting displaced people include non-food items (34 per cent of localities), access to income-generating activities (31 per cent), sanitation and hygiene (20 per cent), access to education (7 per cent), and access to documents (5 per cent).

  • In addition, displacement and resettlement sites across Mozambique remain a critical hotspot for COVID-19 transmissions, due to the limited access to basic services, including water, sanitation and health attention. There are reports of at least 6,000 people leaving resettlement sites due to the fear of contracting the disease.

Response

  • In Nothern Mozambique, CCCM Cluster partners organized, between October 2020 and December 2020, nine joint site assessments in Ancuabe, Chiure and Metuge districts in Cabo Delgado Province. The coordinated efforts are aimed at determining suitability of site locations for relocation of people internally displaced and ensuring minimum standards are in place prior to any movements.

  • A total of 23 sites have been assessed and site planning and development started in 7 sites. Displaced people were relocated to two sites, while development activities continued in the other five settlements to ensure viable living conditions and adequate space for various service provision activities, including for COVID-19 prevention and response.

  • Across the sites under development by CCCM teams in Northern Mozambique, 4,122 plots have been demarcated, 6,247 plots are under development, and 1,664 have been occupied across 3 functioning sites. A distribution of 156 solar streetlights are planned to reduce protection concerns across the sites and 40 solar lights are under installation at Corrane settlement in Nampula Province.

  • The CCCM cluster team carried out two technical trainings on site planning, site demarcation and use of GPS devices, including on the job mentoring. A total 12 officials from the provincial government were trained at the Provincial Directorate of Land and Territorial Planning and 13 technical officials from Metuge (6), Chuire(3) and Ancuabe (4) districts were also trained. Plans are in place to carry out further trainings in 2021.

Gaps

  • In Cabo Delgado, continuous assessments to identify the extent of needs and response in hard-to-reach areas remains challenging due to insecurity.

  • The attacks in Mocimboa da Praia and Muidumbe have hampered data collection efforts in these districts and due to inaccessibility, these districts could not be assessed.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Education

8M
students affected by schools' closure

Needs

  • Access to education remains an important concern for children, who constitute between 45 and 50 per cent of the population displaced across Mozambique.

  • In Cabo Delgado, displaced children face issues to access schools in at least 18 per cent of the localities, in particular in Pemba, Quissanga, Necuapa and Mapupulo. Although access to learning spaces is relatively easy across the rest of the region, in 94 per cent of the localities students need more support with school materials. More classrooms are needed in 39 per cent of the localities and more teachers in 20 per cent, according to IOM/DTM.

  • In Nampula and Niassa, rapid assessment reports indicate that education and active learning have been significantly disrupted in localities hosting internally displaced people, who are hosted in schools.

  • In the three northern provinces, further assessments are needed to evaluate the specific needs in each of the relocation centres and transitional sites. The affected learner and teachers require better access to some distance learning through material or radio messages in local languages.

  • Across the country, the COVID-19 pandemic puts more than 8 million children and 136,000 teachers at risk, due to the closure of all schools since 23 March. More than half of the parents and guardians do not understand or read texts in Portuguese, limiting knowledge about the disease and infection information. Services for distance education need to be strengthened through radio lessons, learning materials and should include COVID-19 prevention measures.

  • Home methodology for learning are limited or not yet developed and many children and teachers do not have adequate facilities or resources for digital learning. Teachers do not have enough resources to manage teaching from home and collecting tasks done at home by children. In addition, many children do not have conducive learning environments at home, particularly those in lower-income neighbourhoods and among refugees and displaced groups.

  • For children benefiting from school feeding, the suspension of classes had an impact on their food security and nutrition, creating an extra burden to the families that relied on it as an indirect income transfer.

  • In December, Tropical Storm Chalane aggravated the situation as at least 130 schools were affected, impacting about 41,00 students and more than 820 teachers, according to preliminary reports from the Government (INGC). Muanza and Nhamatanda districts, in Sofala Province, where particularly affected.

  • District authorities in Sofala Province have requested 400 tents, 2,000 tarps, 24,000 student kits, 300 teacher kits and 400 blackboards to meet the immediate needs for affected children and teachers, whose actual needs are yet to be determined. At least 390 school tents and 1,685 tarps are needed.

Response

  • Education partners, led by Action Aid, reached 6,150 children (2,956 boys and 3,195 girls) with hygiene kits and information materials for COVID-19 prevention in Nhamatanda District in Sofala Province.

  • Education partners produced over 13,000 lessons for community radios for primary, secondary, adult and technical/vocational education, of which 58 per cent (7,594 lessons) for primary schools were in Portuguese and local languages. UNICEF supported 25 trainers and 62 teachers to preparing the radio and TV lessons.

  • Education partners, led by UNICEF, provided distance learning services to 23,832 children (11,837 girls and 11,995 boys), of which 1,360 children (680 girls and 680 boys) were supported with distance learning materials for home studies in Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Sofala provinces.

  • We World/GVC supported 61 teachers in Pemba with distance education methodology and trained 84 teachers in psychosocial support. At least 802 children and 200 teachers were informed about COVID-19 prevention, in addition to the distribution of about 100 posters on COVID 19 prevention.

  • In Cabo Delgado, at least 170 school-in-a-box kits, 15,403 learners’ kits, 600 tarpaulins (6,000 children) and 298 chalkboards have been distributed to the district education offices in the south of the province.

  • Education partners are providing psychosocial support in Ancuabe, Balama Chiure, Namuno, Metuge, and Pemba, districts for 363 teachers, out of a target of 1,110 affected teachers.

  • In Manica Province, at least 740 students received COVID-19 prevention information.

Gaps

  • Due to limited access to TV, radio and internet, there are concerns that most children had no access to education over the last months.

  • Muanza District, in Sofala Province, which was affected by Tropical Storm Chalane, has reportedly the least number of beneficiaries and humanitarian actors operating. The district has hardly recovered from the impact of Idai.

  • With limited stock, the cluster is not able to provide sufficient temporary learning spaces and additional basic education services are needed to respond adequately to the impacts caused by Tropical Storm Chalane.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Food Security and Livelihoods

840,000
people facing hunger - Northern Mozambique
745,000
people reached in December 2020

Needs

  • Multiple crises, including recurrent climate shocks (drought and floods), conflict and violence and the impact of COVID-19 are disrupting livelihoods across Mozambique and increasing food insecurity in the country. The situation is particularly concerning in the conflict-affected areas of Cabo Delgado, as well as Inhambane, Gaza, northern Maputo and southern Manica provinces.

  • In the northern region, conflict and erratic weather have disrupted communities’ agricultural activities and livelihoods. By the end of 2020, nearly 840,000 people in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula were facing Crisis or Emergency levels of food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 and 4), while disruption of markets due to insecurity has driven up the cost of food and household items.

  • Across the country, at least 2.7 million people were facing severe hunger by the end of the year, majority of them, 1.9 million people, in the rural areas of Mozambique.

Response

  • Food Security and Livelihood partners scaled up the response, despite security and funding challenges.

  • The Government’s National Institute of Social Action (INAS) and humanitarian partners, led by WFP and UNICEF, implemented the activities under the COVID-19 response plan in Cabo Delgado (Montepuez, Metuge, Chiure and Mecufi districts), Maputo and Gaza provinces (Inhaca, matutuine and Chicualacuala).

  • In Cabo Delgado, Food Security partners reached at least 745,800 people with food assistance in December 2020, out of a nearly 979,000 planned.

  • Partners reached almost 294,000 people with livelihoods assistance in Cabo Delgado during the main agricultural season from September to December 2020, while over 113,000 people received agricultural inputs, support and training in December.

Gaps

  • Food Security needs for COVID-19 and conflict-affected areas were not adequately covered due to funding gaps, especially following a rapidly deterioration of the situation.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Health

2,400
cholera cases in Cabo Delgado
18,373
COVID-19 cases (as of 31 December)

Needs

  • The COVID-19 pandemic is stretching the already fragile health system in Mozambique, where dozens of facilities destroyed or damaged by cyclones Idai and Kenneth are yet to be repaired. Diagnostic laboratory capacity for coronavirus cases is low in all provinces, and more personal protective equipment and training on COVID-19 management are needed.

  • At least 36 per cent of health facilities across Cabo Delgado have been destroyed and, by the end of the year, there were no functional health facilities in the districts hardest hit by conflict, including Macomia, Mocimboa da Praia, Muidumbe and Quissanga. This has reduced capacity to detect and respond to disease outbreaks, including cholera, measles and COVID-19, and to provide critical care, such as sexual and reproductive healthcare, immunization activities, access to anti-retroviral for people living with HIV and treatment for tuberculosis.

  • Based on the rapidly spreading nature of COVID-19 and weakness of the health system, there is an urgent need for enhanced preparedness, operational readiness, and response capacities to prevent, detect early and rapidly respond under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005).

Response

  • UNFPA conducted four training sessions on COVID-19 case management in Sofala in December for at least 126 health professionals (61 males and 65 females). The training were conducted at the Beira COVID-19 Centre, Mafambisse Health Centre, Beira Central Hospital and Dondo Hospital.

  • At least 14 mobile brigades were trained on how to use the COVID-19 Real-Time Monitoring tool with the tablets. The technology will enable partners to send all the mobile brigade database electronically, reducing the chances of infections.

  • More than 6,900 women received mobile brigade services in December through nurses identified by Mozambican Association for Family Development (AMODEFA).

  • Health Cluster partners, in collaboration with the Provincial Directorate of Gender, Child, and Social Affairs (DPGCAS), organized activities in Buzi, Dondo and Nhamatanda between 27 November and 12 December to commemorate and raise awareness around the 16 Days of Activism to End Violence Against Women and Girls.

  • The COVID-19 response planned by the Government and partners (WFP – UNCEF) started in Cabo Delgado (Montepuez, Metuge, Chiure and Mecufi) and in Maputo and Gaza provinces (Inhaca, Matutuine and Chicualacuala). Health partners supported the Government in the development of the multi-risk contingency plan for points of entry.

  • WHO, in collaboration with Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transport, Immigration and Police trained 120 participants on public health surveillance working in point of entry (airport, land crossing and ports) in Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Tete, Zambezia, Gaza and Maputo provinces.

  • Health Cluster Partners supported the expansion of diagnostic capacity with 7 out of 11 provinces having functional COVID-19 testing labs by the end of 2020. One PCR machine procured and delivered to National Institute of Health (INS) to increase the daily testing capacity.

  • At least 153 Mobile Brigades were conducted in Meluco District, reaching more than 6,500 women with sexual and reproductive health services.

  • To support displaced populations from the armed conflict, partners organized a training in Ancuabe for 25 traditional midwives from Macomia, Quissanga, Ancuabe, Metuge and Montepuez districts.

  • A training on Basic Essential Obstetric Care took place from 7 to 17 December 2020 in the facilities of the Rural Hospital of Montepuez. It was attended by 11 nurses from the districts of Metuge, Pemba, Montepuez, Chiure, Ancuabe and Mueda.

Gaps

  • Additional security services for the health centres in resettlement sites are needed, as cases of destruction and theft have been reported.

  • Additional funds are needed to cover operational cost at province and district levels for field related activities.

  • Access to affected areas in Quissanga, Macomia, Mocimboa da Praia and Quissanga remains limited, with an urgent need to reactivate many of the referral chains that are no longer functional.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Nutrition

40%
chronic malnutrution - Cabo Delgado

Needs

  • Prolonged and increasing food insecurity in several parts of the country, multiple displacements and the consequent disruption of access to services in Cabo Delgado, coupled with COVID-19 will likely increase acute malnutrition in Mozambique. The situation is especially concerning amongst newly displaced families and host communities in Cabo Delgado Province, where increasing violence is also hampering humanitarian operations.

Response

  • Nutrition response activities are ongoing in 34 districts across the country, including in the northern provinces.

  • In Cabo Delgado, partners joined different rapid needs assessment, including in Inancuabe, Palma, Montepuez, Metuge and Meluco. Funded by WFP and UNICEF, the Nutrition Cluster, in collaboration with the Government’s Technical Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition (SETSAN) and the Provincial Health Directorate (DPS) is conducting SMART surveys in six districts of Cabo Delgado (Metuge, Ibo, Montepuez, Pemba, Chiúre and Mecúfi) that are hosting the highest number of displaced people.

  • Nutrition activities held through 263 Integrated Mobile Brigades in Cabo Delgado, Sofala and Zambezia allowed the screening for acute malnutrition of 15,673 children under age 5, and identification of 192 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and 677 with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). At least 12,851 children were supplemented with vitamin A, nearly 9,300 dewormed, and 13,543 mothers and caretakers of children under age 5 received infant and young child feeding (IYCF)-related messages.

  • In Cabo Delgado Province, at least 169 mobile brigades were conducted between October and December 2020, enabling the screening of at least 8,115 children under age 5 for acute malnutrition. Nearly 137 were diagnosed with SAM and 445 with MAM and were all referred for treatment. Almost 6,430 children under age 5 were supplemented with vitamin A, approximately 4,120 were dewormed, and about 12,350 mothers and caretakers received IYCF-related messages.

  • Partners supported DPS in conducting district supervisions and identification of nutrition sites for implementation of integrated nutrition program, provided support for online and in person mentoring on inpatient treatment of acute malnutrition, and provided equipment, including portable stadiometer, electronic and spring type scales, inpatient kit supply/equipment modules, outpatient kit equipment module, material for malnutrition screening.

Gaps

  • The number of children reached with the nutrition interventions are way below the projected cases for each of the districts. At least 152,000 chidlren are targeted countrywide but only 20,000 have been reached.

  • Access is still limited in some of the districts and children are not accessing the much-needed nutrition interventions. The Nutrition Cluster is working with all partners to ensure response in areas that are accessible.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Protection

61%
displaced people lack documentation

Needs

  • Attacks by non-state armed groups expanded geographically and increased in intensity in 2020, significantly heightening protection risks, especially for women and girls, people with disabilities, older persons and people living with HIV/AIDS.

  • Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic presents a burden on a system that is already struggling to respond to pre-existing humanitarian needs and protection concerns resulting from the impact of climate shocks, insecurity and armed conflict.

  • People living in camps or camp-like settings or resettlement sites or within host communities, with limited access to services, are all at heightened risk during a disease outbreak as their right to information, access to healthcare and access to protection services are constrained.

  • Women are reportedly walking long distance to access food, water and services, exposing them to protection risks, particularly sexual and gender-based violence, according to a rapid assessment conducted by World Vision.

  • Children are particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic due to the closure of schools and services. Most children living in accommodation sites in Sofala, Nampula and Cabo Delgado do not have access to gears to protect them from COVID-19. The lack of sufficient handwashing facilities hampers humanitarian’s ability to carry out activities with children.

  • More than 60 per cent of people displaced have reported lack of identification documents such as National ID card, birth certificate and parents are not able to access birth certificates for newborns in some areas.

Response

  • A Child Friendly Space adapted methodology considering COVID-19 preventive measures, was prepared and is under approval by the Government. However, its implementation will not be effective without proper funding.

  • In Central Mozambique, at least four cases of gender-based violence (GBV) were referred in December, including three in Dondo and one in Buzi. This was carried out in collaboration with PLAN International.

  • In the same region, partners distributed at least 500 dignity kits and face masks to survivors of Cyclone Chalane in Sofala.

  • In Northern Mozambique, joint efforts between Government Social Welfare, ICRC and Save the Children resulted in the safe reunification of five of unaccompanied children and about 54 others were placed in safe foster care families, in December alone.

  • At least 581 children (287 male and 294 female) were registered for case management services, with the support of AVSI and Save the Children. Most of these children were either referred to health facilities or for birth registration services.

  • AVSI and Save the Children also provided psychosocial support to at least 795 children (423 male and 372 female).

  • Partners launched a birth registration campaign on 18 December in Metuge District, Cabo Delgado Province, and registered almost 4,000 children (1,976 males and 1,945 females).

  • A joint Government and UN team from Cabo Delgado distributed 300 dignity kits for displaced people in Niassa, who had fled the conflict in Cabo Delgado. The team also visited people displaced in Lichinga, Marrupa, Cuamba, Mecula, Metarica, Mandimba, Chimbunila and Administrative Post of Meponda.

  • At least 300 dignity kits were distributed to women and girls in N’koripo in Montepuez, while 917 people participated in GBV awareness campaigns in the same locality.

  • UNFPA reprinted 250 GBV Pocket Guides in Portuguese version and sent copies to Niassa and Nampula, while others will be distributed to partners as the need arises.

  • More than 1,630 women and girls had access to activities at the Women Friendly Spaces (WFS) in Cabo Delgado. At least 9 WFS are in operation in the province (3 in Metuge, 2 Montepuez, 2 Chiure, 1 Mecufi, 1 Ancuabe), with plans to establish 3 new WFS in Pemba, Metuge and Ancuabe.

  • COVID-19 sessions were held in different locations of Cabo Delgado with direct participation of Government authorities, health workers and locals. At least 2,555 people from Ancuabe, Chiure, Metuge, Montepuez and Pemba were reached with the messages.

  • A Clinical Management Training on Sexual Violation cases took place in Chiure for ten participants from Pemba, Metuge, Ancuabe, Chiúre and Montepuez. The objective was to increase capacity among health and social action technicians for the management and integrated care of survivors of GBV, mainly in the districts that have the greatest number of people displaced by the conflict in Cabo Delgado.

Gaps

  • Gap in funding is affecting the possibility of Child Protection partners to extend their geographical coverage and address the needs of children affected by the armed conflict in Cabo Delgado. Partners have not received significant funds to respond to COVID-19 and this is evidenced in the lack of capacity to ensure proper preventive measures.

  • There are gaps in capacity to support the Provincial Directorate of Gender, Child, and Social Affairs (DPGCAS) to establish an Integrated Service Centre (CAI) and an Office for the Assistance of Family and Minor Victims of Violence (GAFMVV) in Pemba. UNFPA will be ready to equip the GAFMVV.

  • With limited access to Quissanga, Macomia, Mocimboa da Praia, remote and mobile case management to support GBV survivors or women at risk of violence is an important gap.

  • In some districts of Cabo Delgado, there is a lack of services to refer individuals in situation of vulnerability, particularly people with disabilities, and absence of state agents and NGOs responsible to provide the necessary follow up.

  • In Niassa, Lichinga, Marrupa and Cuamba localities, all hosting internally displaced people, lack women friendly spaces.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Shelter & Non-Food Items

668,000
People Displaced - Cabo Delgado's conflict
7.4M
people in need of assistance - COVID-19

Needs

  • The number of people displaced by violence and insecurity, especially in Cabo Delgado Province, continue to increase on a daily basis. At the end of December 2020, nearly 670,000 people were displaced in Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Niassa Province, almost 580,000 of them in the last year alone. Children account for an estimated 45 to 50 per cent of people displaced.

  • More than 90 per cent of displaced people are staying with family and friends in host communities whose already meagre resources are being strained by the growing influxes. In Ibo district, the number of displaced people surpassed the host community members, while in Pemba City, more than 100,000 people arrived 2020, on top of the original population of around 224,000 people.

  • Meanwhile, 10 per cent of displaced people are staying in collective sites, which are overcrowded, lack privacy, and have limited access to safe shelter, water and sanitation.

  • Both people staying with host families and in overcrowded collective centres are in urgent need of not only shelter support but also essential household items to minimize their unhealthy and harsh living conditions.

  • In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic remains a major risk for people living in overcrowded conditions in urban areas or resettlement sites, and in rural areas without access to basic services, including water, sanitation and health care. The Cluster targeted at least 369,000 out of 7.4 million people in need of shelter and non-food items because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Response

  • At least 25 per cent of the displaced people received shelter assistance in the assessed districts of Cabo Delgado. However, assistance was extremely limited in districts receiving an increasing influx of displaced people, including Ancuabe, Montepuez, Mueda, and Palma.

  • ICRC and the Mozambique Red Cross (CVM) reached 6,500 people in Pemba with shelter and non-food items (NFI) kits, including 450 families in Eduardo Mondalne, 303 in Cariaco, 300 in Natite and 247 in Paquitequet. More than 124,500 IDPs remain in need of shelter and NFIs assistance in Pemba.

  • Still in Cabo Delgado, humanitarian partners, led by IOM, completed the construction of 230 emergency shelters in Ntokota, Metuge District. The construction of the remaining 1,140 is ongoing. IOM also supported the construction of emergency shelters for eight vulnerable displaced families in Pemba, who survived a boat accident when trying to reach the city. Another three families from the host community were supported with roof repairs.

  • CARE and UNHCR distributed shelter and NFIs kits to more than 3,700 families in Chuire District, including 164 families in Katapua, 487 in Ocua and 92 families in Chiure Velho.

  • In Namuno, CRS-Caritas reached more than 900 people with shelter and NFIs kits.

  • ICRC distributed 400 shelter and NFIs kits in Quirimbas Islands, covering 20 per cent of families displaced in Ibo District.

  • IOM completed the distribution of shelter and NFIs kits in Nanjua B, Ancuabe District, for the remaining 366 families out of 976 assisted.

  • In Niassa Province, CRS-Caritas distributed shelter and NFIs kits to nearly 3,100 people in Marrupa District, covering 94 per cent of the 1,432 families in need in the area.

  • In Nampula, IOM completed the construction of 130 shelters (phase II) in Corrane, out of the targeted of 1,092.

Gaps

  • The Government priority to assist people sheltering in temporary and relocation sites makes it difficult to support those living with host families.

  • Limited access due to security limitations continues to hinder access to people displaced in hard-to-reach insecure areas or those on the move and in need.

  • There is an important lack of resources and materials for massive shelter construction.

  • Displaced people hosted in several districts of southern Cabo Delgado, including Balama, Chiure, Mecufi and Namuno reported they have not received any kind of shelter assistance. This indicates an important gap in the response, as these regions are currently accessible.

  • Preliminary results from multisectoral rapid response assessments indicate that at least 3,262 people in Meluco and 72,000 in Montepuez districts in Cabo Delgado are yet to receive any type of shelter and NFI assistance. People displaced are building shelters with local materials but are yet to settle in the houses due to lack of access to food in the relocation area.

  • In Nicavaco, partners reported availability of construction materials but technical support is needed to facilitate the construction.

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Mozambique

Situation Report

Cluster Status

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

50%
of people access improved water supply

Needs

  • Prior to COVID-19, hundreds of thousands of people in Mozambique were already in need of water, sanitation and hygiene services. Most of the 80 per cent of urban people live in informal settlements with limited access to water and sanitation, and majority of the increasing displaced population of Mozambique lack access to the same services.

  • The country has been facing multiple disease outbreaks, including cholera and malaria, stretching humanitarian organization’s capacity to assist those in need of assistance.

  • Only half of Mozambicans have access to improved water supply and just one in five use improved sanitation facilities. Of the 1,643 health centres in the country, some 19 per cent do not have access to water, and 17 per cent do not have sanitation facilities for patients.

  • In Cabo Delgado, at least 38 per cent of the displaced population need access to safe drinking water, mainly in Chiure, Montepuez, Mueda and Quissanga districts. Damaged water sources remain a major impediment to access safe drinking water, with at least 6 of 10 localities hosting displaced people in Cabo Delgado hosting IDPs affected.

  • Women and girls are particularly affected by poor access to water and sanitation, which has a detrimental impact on their health and threatens their security, well-being and education.

Response

  • WASH partners continued to deliver the essential assistance to displaced population and people at risk of contracting cholera through the temporary provision of water, water source rehabilitation and drilling.

  • The Cluster also organized hygiene promotion sessions and distribution of hygiene kits.

  • In Central Mozambique, at least 15,450 people were provided with household disinfection kits in resettlement sites in Sofala (Nhamatanda, Beira and Dondo) through Oxfam in partnership with Kulima. Messaging campaigns are ongoing in other provinces as well through mass media and community actors.

  • In Sofala, partners organized capacity building on COVID-19 prevention for 300 community actors.

  • At least 2,250 families had access to safe water through continuous operation of centralized water supply systems in Dondo and Nhamatanda. Partners installed 1,500 handwashing stations at household levels in Dondo District.

  • As at end of December 2020, WASH Cluster provided WASH emergency support through water trucking in resettlement sites and sustained access through borehole drilling and repairs and rehabilitation of water sources in both resettlement sites and host communities across the central region.

  • In Cabo Delgado, partners installed 2,000 handwashing stations at household levels in Montepuez District. In December 2020, the WASH cluster (UNICEF, CVM and Save the Children) distributed WASH NFI kits to over 10,000 displaced people in Cabo Delgado and also conducted hygiene promotion activities. The majority of hygiene kit distribution went to resettlement sites and cholera hotspots.

  • Upon confirmation of cholera cases in Metuge, Ancuabe and Montepuez, UNICEF distributed 6,000 additional bottles of household water treatment chemical. Partners also extended number of taps on water points of Nangua, the locality with the highest number of cholera cases, to improve the availability of water.

  • Partners are also installing sanitation facilities in resettlement sites to accommodate the increasing number of displaced families in Cabo Delgado. Around 360 emergency latrines were installed in the different temporary sites.

  • In Nampula Province, 2,323 family latrines were installed in host communities, in addition to 33 temporary latrines and bathing facilities to displaced people. Partners also distributed nearly 540 family and dignity kits in the region.

  • Also in Nampula Province, partners organized campaigns on COVID-19 prevention, which included distribution of handwashing kits to displaced families.

Gaps

  • Hygiene campaigns and change of behaviour activities are a huge gap to promote a safer environment amongst the affected communities.

  • Fewer number of WASH partners on ground and low reporting rates, with potential duplication and overlaps reported especially in the relocation sites.

  • Inaccessibility in most locations challenged service delivery and quality monitoring of the activities.

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Mozambique

Situation Report
Coordination

General Coordination

The overall humanitarian response in Mozambique is led and coordinated by the national authorities through the National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) and related emergency coordination mechanisms. The operation and humanitarian assistance receive the support of aid organizations organized in the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), which includes UN agencies, International and National NGOs, Red Cross and donor representatives. The HCT is supported at the operational level by an Inter-Cluster Coordination Group (ICCG).

For the COVID-19 public health response, the Government formed the Health Partners Group, led by the Ministry of Health with support from WHO and partners. A national COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plan was developed and a Technical Advisory Team (TAT) formed by experts from WHO, UNICEF, Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Bank, USAID, UNFPA was established to coordinate, add quality and harmonize outputs from the various technical working groups. All of these teams are active and continue to function while a similar structure is being implemented through the health departments and Governors’ offices at the provincial level.

Prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA) is a central tenet of the response. The PSEA Network serves as the primary body for coordination and oversight of activities related to protection from sexual exploitation and abuse by international and national personnel of UN, NGO entities and associated personnel involved in the response. The PSEA Network provides technical support to the clusters, agencies and partners to ensure capacity building and community awareness on PSEA, access to safe reporting mechanisms and referral of SEA survivors to assistance services.

UN and partners appeal for US$254 million to scale up humanitarian response in northern Mozambique To respond to the increasing humanitarian needs in Cabo Delgado, the United Nations and humanitarian partners launched, on 18 December, the 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan appealing for US$254 million to provide urgently needed assistance and protection to about 1.1 million people affected by violence, conflict and insecurity in Cabo Delgado and neighbouring provinces in northern Mozambique. The funding will allow the United Nations and partners to scale up the humanitarian response in 2021 in the northern region, where nearly 670,000 people have been forced from their homes due to the ongoing conflict.

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