Nigeria

Situation Report

Highlights

  • The number of people in need of urgent assistance in north-east Nigeria rose from 7.9 million at the beginning of 2020 to 10.6 million since the onset of COVID-19
  • Up to 7 million people may become food insecure, up from pre-COVID-19 figures of 3.7 million
  • Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states have recorded COVID-19 cases, including in IDP camps. Borno is among the worst affected states in Nigeria. COVID-19 is deepening humanitarian needs
  • In light of COVID-19, humanitarians have adapted the response, setting up hand washing stations and quarantine shelters and introduced physical distancing during distributions
  • Aid workers reached 5.2 million people in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states with life-saving assistance in 2019
Nigeria Situation Update Photo
Local CSOs HEWA and COMO holding sensitization meetings with traditional and religious leaders in Yola South LGA, Adamawa State. Photo: HEWA/Abubakar Halilu

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Situation Report

Key Figures

10.6M
People in need of humanitarian assistance
7.8M
People targeted for humanitarian aid
1.8M
People internally displaced
3.8M
People in need of food security assistance
1.1M
People in need of nutrition assistance
1.2M
People in inaccessible areas

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Nigeria

Situation Report

Funding

$1.1B
Required
$321.9M
Received
30%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Trond Jensen

Head of Office, OCHA Nigeria

Eve Sabbagh

Head of Public Information, OCHA Nigeria

Leni Kinzli

Public Information Officer

Nigeria

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview

The global COVID-19 pandemic increasingly affected humanitarian operations and access in north-east Nigeria. On 27 February, Nigeria recorded its first case of corona virus and closed all air travel on 23 March, with state governments in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe issuing lockdown restrictions throughout March and April. These restrictions affected supply chains and the delivery of vital humanitarian assistance.

Meanwhile, aid workers stepped up efforts to raise awareness on preventing the spread of COVID-19 and putting risk mitigation measures in place, such as setting up hand washing stations, ensuring an adequate supply of water, and building quarantine shelters. Aid organizations also ramped up risk communications messaging with motorized campaigns, door-to-door hygiene promotion in line with COVID-19 distancing measures, and rolling out a series of animation videos, public service announcements, and myth busters. 

Movement restrictions also raise concernsabout the lack of livelihood opportunities and food insecurity. An initial analysis by WFP, indicates that about 7 million people may become food insecure in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states due to the potential impact of a COVID-19 on food security and livelihoods. This is almost double the 3.7 million people who were projected to be food insecure in the 2020 lean season according to the March 2020 Cadre Harmonisé (CH).

Movement restrictions and other impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are also increasing risks of domestic violence and of gender-based violence including sexual violence. GBV Sub-Sector partners have developed innovative ways to adapt their response, including through new phone-in helpline services and redesigning safe and friendly spaces together with affected women. 

School closures due to COVID-19 lockdowns also affected 4.2 million students across the BAY states, which led education sector partners to adapt their response by, for example, delivering radio learning programmes reaching out to 1.9 million children, including those in IDP camps and host communities.  

In April, the humanitarian community mourned the death of an aid worker, who was working as a nurse in Pulka, who had contracted COVID-19. The Humanitarian Coordinator in Nigeria extended condolences to the family, friends and colleagues of the aid worker, which also marked the first case recorded in Borno State. Health partners are working closely with the National Center for Disease Control (NCDC), Borno State Government, the Federal Ministry of Health and the Federal Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development, to contain the spread of virus by establishing isolation centres, contact tracing, and bolstering measures to prevent the spread of the virus and protect IDPs and communities in Borno State.

In March and April, the hot and dry season in Nigeria led to a series of fire outbreaks in camps for internally displaced people. In one of the most severe fire outbreaks which happened in International Secondary School IDP Camp in Ngala, Borno State, on 16 April, fourteen people lost their lives and 300 shelters were damaged. By mid-April, some 15 fire outbreaks had been recorded since the beginning of the year affecting more than 15,000 people. Overcrowding in IDP camps across the BAY states, with shelters being built in close proximity to one another, exacerbates the risk of fire outbreaks, as well as disease outbreaks. These series of incidents, coupled with the risk of COVID-19 and other diseases spreading across IDP camps, highlights the urgent need for decongestion and expansion of camps. Humanitarian actors have developed a decongestion plan looking at priority areas outside of Borno State capital Maiduguri.

Insecurity along the Maiduguri – Monguno road, one of the main supply routes in north-central Borno, continued to impede humanitarian operations. There was an increase in the number of illegal check points set up by non-state armed groups and armed criminal gangs in March and April, with 14 such incidents recorded up from ten recorded in January and February. This continued to pose constraints and hamper the movement of humanitarian goods and alert to growing concerns that civilians and aid workers are targeted along this road.

The 2020 Humanitarian Needs Overview and Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) was updated to include the increase in needs as a result of COVID-19, with the number of people in need going up to 10.6 million. In 2020, the humanitarian community is aiming to reach 7.8 million people in dire need of humanitarian assistance and COVID-19-specific responses with a financial appeal of $1.08 billion. The plan is currently only 14.7 per cent funded half way through the year, signaling the urgent need for increased financial support.

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Situation Report
Visual

North-East Nigeria Humanitarian Snapshot

North-East Nigeria Humanitarian Snapshot

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Situation Report
Media

Humanitarian Coordinator Statement on the Killing of Aid Workers in Borno State

I am utterly shocked and horrified by the gruesome killing of some of our colleagues and partners by non-state armed groups in Borno State. My most heartfelt condolences go to their loved ones, families, friends and co-workers.

They were committed humanitarians who devoted their lives to helping vulnerable people and communities in an area heavily affected by violence. Our colleagues and partners were abducted while travelling on a main route connecting the northern town of Monguno with Maiduguri, the Borno State capital. Their safety and securing their safe release have been our highest priority since they were captured last month.

I strongly condemn all violence targeting aid workers and the civilians they are assisting. I am also troubled by the number of illegal vehicular checkpoints set up by non-state armed groups along main supply routes. These checkpoints disrupt the delivery of life-saving assistance and heighten the risks for civilians of being abducted, killed or injured, with aid workers increasingly being singled out. Full press statement here.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Yobe State Humanitarian Situation Analysis (April to June 2020)

Conflict continued in Yobe State, including NSAG attacks and clashes with government forces along the LGAs of Geidam and Gujba, bordering Borno State. The security situation in these LGAs remains unpredictable and volatile. Government forces continue to carry out operations and maintain a high level of alertness following NSAG activities across border LGAs.

There is a significant increase in the threats of attacks on both civilian and military convoys, abduction/kidnapping (at illegal vehicle checkpoints), and IEDs along these routes. UXOs also pose a threat, with incidents reported in June in Gujba LGA, with the police issuing warning of widespread threats across the LGAs, particularly across farming areas. NSAG attacks were targeting civilian communities across Bursari, Geidam, Gujba LGAs, and abductions in Lantewa, Tarmuwa LGA along the Damaturu – Babangida road. An attack in Buni Gari (27/04/2020), Gujba LGA, resulted in the burning down of activity centers of some humanitarian actors in the community, which triggered a temporary suspension of operations.

Download the full report here.

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Situation Report
Feature
Zarah (left) and Hyelsinta (right) spending quality time together following Zarah’s recovery

Providing a New Chance at Life to Crisis-Affected Women in North-East Nigeria

“I feel glad and fulfilled knowing that I was at the right place at the right time to help save a life. This for me is the true definition of being a humanitarian,” Hyelsinta Ahmadu, a GBV Nurse at a Women and Girl’s Friendly Space in north-east Nigeria, run by Jireh Doo Foundation and established with funding from the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund.

Hyelsinta’s intervention last year saved the life of Zarah, a young woman in the community, who was on the brink of life and death due to complications giving birth. Their story is one of hope, transformation and change. Read full story here.

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Situation Report
Media
Damage to UNHAS Heli in Damasak

Humanitarian Coordinator Statement on Attack in Damasak, Damage to Aid Helicopter

I am gravely concerned by reports of another violent attack by non-state armed groups in Damasak, Borno State, on 2 July, in which at least two innocent civilians lost their lives, including a five-year old child. Several others were injured, and a humanitarian helicopter was hit, sustaining serious damage.

I extend my sincere condolences to the families of the civilians who lost their lives in the attack and wish a prompt recovery to those injured.

I welcome the Government commitment to investigate the attack and swiftly bring to justice the perpetrators. I deplore that a UN Humanitarian Air Service helicopter was hit by bullets during the attack. No aid workers were on board at the time and crew members are all safe. My thoughts are also with the crew and I commend them for piloting the chopper back to safety during this critical situation.

Full press statement here.

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Situation Report
Feature
 NHF-funded emergency water and sanitation

Nigerian Humanitarian Fund Annual Report

In 2019, 7.1 million people, most of them women and children, were in need of urgent assistance in the conflict-affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe. Throughout the year, some 180,000 people were forced to flee their homes, some for a second or third time since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to increased attacks and insecurity.

In this context, the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund (NHF) has proven to be a rapid and flexible tool enabling humanitarian actors to adapt to the fast-changing humanitarian emergency.

The NHF Annual Report reviews the Fund's operations and demonstrates how it was used strategically to address the urgent humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable Nigerians in 2019.

Read the full report here.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Food Security

3.3M
People targeted for food assistance
$315.1M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

An initial analysis by WFP, indicates that about 7 million people may become food insecure in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states due to the potential impact of a COVID-19 on food security and livelihoods. This is almost double the 3.7 million people who were projected to be food insecure in the 2020 lean season according to the March 2020 Cadre Harmonisé (CH). However, the government-led CH Food Security Monitoring Taskforce is currently collecting data to support the review of the March 2020 CH Analysis in the BAY states.

As part of the Program Criticality Assessment (PCA) for the impact of COVID-19 on food and livelihoods security activities, the Food Security Sector (FSS) took part in identifying key life-saving services and Humanitarian Response Plan activities that could be adjusted in light of COVID-19. In addition to the PCA, during the multi-sectoral prioritization for the coming months the FSS included humanitarian support in anticipation of potential newly displacements as a result of floods or conflict, as well as any returns (IDPs and refugees).

As at the end of April, partners are targeting 290,000 households for support during the upcoming rainy season in the BAY states.

Response

In April, around 1.7 million people have received food security assistance. Of these, 64 percent received food assistance and the remainder agriculture and livelihood assistance.

The FSS organized a training on CH Analysis Manual 2.0 for partners from 27 February to 1 March to build capacity on the application of Cadre Harmonise (CH) food security and nutrition analysis framework and strengthen participation of partners in the analysis process at both state and national levels.

The FSS set up three special COVID-19-related taskforces on 1) Food Assistance 2) Remote Price Monitoring and 3) Agricultural livelihoods. The FSS Food Assistance COVID-19 Taskforce developed guidance notes which included recommendations in line with precautions against COVID-19, including doubling rations during distributions for both in-kind and CVA and strongly advocated for humanitarian access during the lockdowns especially in Borno State. The FSS Remote Price Monitoring COVID-19 Taskforce took off in late April with weekly price monitoring as a preparedness to monitor prices of food and key multi sectoral non-food items during the lockdown. A recommendation from the FSS Agricultural Livelihoods COVID-19 taskforce includes temporarily stopping communal or Public Works Programme activities, however encouraging livelihoods activities at the household or individual level.

The two-day training on Integrating Child Protection (CP) and Gender-Based Violence (GBV) in Food Security and Livelihoods Programming took place on 18 and 19 March in Maiduguri, Borno State. A total of 40 humanitarian staff (19 women and 21 men) participated in the training, which was delivered in coordination with the GBV and Child Protection sub-sectors.

Partners supported the formation and training of 61 Group Savings and Loan Associations (GSLAs) in Bama LGA, Borno State comprising famer field school groups and beneficiaries of cash transfer.

Partners deployed five mobile threshing machines and hammer milling machine for grain processing in Jere, Kaga, Biu, Bama and Ngala LGAs (Borno State), to boost household incomes through agro processing enterprise, and providing a processing service to the communities.

In March and April, partners provided Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) including stoves and more efficient cooking energy to 1,883 vulnerable households across in the BAY states. Post distribution monitoring will be conducted in subsequent months to assess the level of satisfaction and utilization of the new technology.

In March, partners trained 175 people (75 women and 100 men) on environment-friendly fish farming and processing techniques in Jere, Gwoza, Monguno and Ngala LGAs (Borno State). In April, beneficiaries of fish farming inputs, such as fish fingerlings, fish feed, and water harvesting equipment, began harvesting and selling fish in Monguno and Gwoza LGAs while partners are restocking fish tanks in Monguno and Dusman communities.

Gaps

As part of preparedness for COVID-19, the Sector has continued to advocate for support to cover food gaps that may arise at isolation and quarantine centres in the BAY states, in the event of an outbreak.

The Country Cluster/Sector Performance Monitoring (CCPM) Survey was done during from 2 to 13 March 2020. A total of 30 responses (14 INGOs, 13 NNGOs, 1 UN, and 2 others) were received out of 68 active partners. The feedback was generally quite positive and satisfactory. However, there are still many areas that the FSS can improve for example improving analysis on gaps and integrating HIV/AIDs or disabilities into the food security response.

Joint advocacy efforts continue to call for humanitarian access during the COVID-19 lockdown and movement restrictions especially in Borno State which reduced access to beneficiaries.

Restrictions in inter-state movements coupled with strict lockdown measures especially in Borno State made it more difficult for partners to access people in need, as well as vendors, especially in the urban and peri-urban areas. Partners also faced challenges in pre-positioning food in the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the deep field. Access to food was also made more difficult given price increases on food and agricultural inputs due to a both lockdown measures and restrictions in movements of traders.

The security situation, especially along the main supply routes and remote countryside areas, continues to pose major challenges to the implementation of ongoing deep field activities and has also led to limited accessibility or total inaccessibility of humanitarian actors to some LGAs in the north-east. The security situation has also continued to reduce access to farmland during the dry season.  

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Nutrition

0.8M
People targeted for nutrition assistance
$103.5M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The Nutrition Sector requires a total of 500,000 measuring tapes for Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) to scale-up the “Mother MUAC”, which enables caregivers to screen their own children for malnutrition. The Sector aims to train caregivers and provide a MUAC measuring tape to all vulnerable households in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states, to ensure that all caregivers of children under five years old have the tools and capacity to monitor the nutritional status of their children. This approach will help caregivers to detect signs of malnutrition early enough and refer their children for nutrition treatment.

The Sector also requires funding to provide adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to approximately 20,000 nutrition partners to enable them to effectively and safely provide services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Response

Nutrition Sector partners trained 739 community health workers (CHWs) on the “Mother MUAC” approach to screen, detect and refer acutely malnourished children for treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The health workers who were trained subsequently provided training to 42,106 vulnerable households on how to measure M to screen for malnutrition, and also provided measuring tapes to the households.

In May 2020, Nutrition Sector partners admitted 16,554 severely malnourished children into the outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTPs); 966 severely malnourished children with medical complications in the stabilization centres (SCs) and 212 children under six months with acute malnutrition and breastfeeding problems for medical care and relactation in the SCs. The total number of severely malnourished children admitted in May is approximately 20 per cent lower than what the Sector expected based on seasonal trends. This is attributed to reduced nutrition screenings in response to COVID-19 Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC) measures and a reduction in the number of caregivers seeking services in health facilities due to fear of contracting COVID-19. Over 90 per cent of all children in the OTPs and SCs have been discharged as cured.

To prevent and treat moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), Sector partners reached 116,267 children between six and 23 months and 58,893 pregnant and breastfeeding women from food insecure households through the blanket supplementary feeding programme (BSFP). In addition, some 3,838 children between 24 and 59 months with MAM were also included in the BSFP.

Partners reached 3,182 children ages six to 59 months with MAM through the facility-based targeted supplementary feeding programme (TSFP) in selected communities in Jere and Kaga LGAs in Borno State and 10 LGAs in Yobe State. The TSFP programme admitted 851 new MAM cases, approximately 50 per cent reduction compared to the previous month, due to reduced screening by CHWs.

To prevent micronutrient deficiencies among children from six to 23 months, Sector partners reached 20,681 children with micro-nutrient supplementation powders (MNP) accompanied by nutrition and health education to parents and caregivers. The number of children reached has increased as compared to previous months due to improved reporting.

To promote the prevention of malnutrition, Nutrition Sector partners provided infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling to 27,894 caregivers of children from 0 to 23 months and 4,599 pregnant women across health facilities. The number of IYCF counselling sessions conducted was significantly lower compared to previous months due to both a decrease in people going to health facilities because of COVID-19 fears, and overburdened health workers. The IYCF promotion through care Support groups reached 133,875 mothers and fathers, while partners put adequate COVID-19 IPC measures in place to safely implement the group activities.

Gaps

The main challenges facing nutrition sector include a lack of MUAC measuring tapes to scale-up Mother MUAC approach, lack of PPEs for service providers, and a reduction of caregivers visiting health facilities and nutrition provision sites due to fear of contracting COVID-19. This decrease needs to be addressed through raising awareness, building confidence in prevention measures and countering stigma.

The Nutrition Sector plans to lobby the Government and donors to allocate additional resources to locally procure or promote local production of PPEs to ensure improved access for health workers including CHWs especially in hard-to-reach and remote areas.

The Nutrition Sector plans to promote the integration of the Mother MUAC approach in all funding proposals including proposals to the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund (NHF) to ensure adequate resources are allocated for this critical intervention throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Nutrition Sector will work closely with the COVID-19 risk communications pillar to integrate COVID-19 key messages into nutrition messaging and activities to eliminate stigma and encourage caregivers to seek timely treatment of health and nutrition problems.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

1.2M
People targeted for CCCM support
$26.5M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The months of May and June witnessed the movements of 14,626 persons (10,005 arrivals and 4,621 departures) across locations in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states. Arrivals were recorded across locations in the most-affected state of Borno but also in several LGAs in Adamawa State. Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT) assessments have identified conflicts/attack, voluntary relocation, poor living condition, improved security and fear of attacks as major movement triggers during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, some 3,965 shelters and 36 latrines were damaged by heavy downpours and windstorm, affecting 9,061 IDPs across 65 camps in the BAY states.

Response

Preventive measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 remain the priority for the Sector, particularly focusing on the highly congested camps. This will also reduce the impact of natural or man-made disasters such as fire outbreaks and flooding.

CCCM partners continue to implement the Risk Communication and Community Mobilization (RCCM) strategy to complement regular camp management awareness activities through community engagement sessions in small groups of less than 20, or at household levels to further equip and educate affected populations on COVID-19 preventive measures. Sensitization sessions continue to be guided by WHO and NCDC guidelines on hand washing, maintenance of physical distance and wearing of face mask. CCCM partners are also working in collaboration with health partners and other stakeholders to address issues around surveillance and border monitoring. The porous nature of IDP camps, especially informal sites with no perimeter walls or demarcated entry and exit points, remains a major challenge for effective implementation of COVID-19 prevention measures.

To cushion the destructive impacts of heavy rains and windstorms experienced across BAY states in recent months, the Sector has developed a flood response strategy, including a contingency plan and projected analysis on flooding and effects. The Sector has also established a response tracking and reporting mechanism which will incorporate sector and partners’ interventions to be released on a bi-weekly basis.

Sector partners alongside the Government counterpart (NEMA/SEMA) also continued scaling up coordination and implementation of the Standard Operating procedures (SOP) on refugee-returnees in border LGAs of Mobbar (Damasak), Ngala, Bama and Dikwa in Borno State. In addition, mainstreaming of protection and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention as well as other cross-cutting issues into sector activities is also a priority. The Sector is therefore working closely with Protection Sector partners and local authorities to ensure proper community mobilization and sensitization, and implementation of complaints and feedback mechanisms.

Amid challenges of camp congestion, eviction notifications were received in Dikwa LGA in a self-settled informal camp (Alhaji Bashir Camp), originally a concrete block making facility. In response, Sector partners supported the voluntary relocation of some 89HHs (309 individuals) affected by the eviction notice to several camo reception centers as a remedial measure pending land allocation for additional shelters.

Gaps

The Sector will continue to scale up advocacy on access to land and foster the implementation of the state government-approved decongestion strategy by mobilizing key stakeholders at LGA level to form decongestion committees to spearhead the process. The Sector and partners will embark on rigorous community mobilization and sensitization on the process to gauge perceptions, understand the concerns, fears and expectations of populations, to promote ownership and acceptance with close coordination and guidance from LGA authorities.

Plans to improve on CCCM delivery will continue to be prioritized including through continuous monitoring of activities to ensure partners scale up camp management activities to meet a required threshold that meet the needs of the affected populations.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Shelter and Non-Food Items

1.0M
People targeted for shelter/NFI support
$76.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The establishment of Quarantine facilities in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states has increasingly become an urgent priority aimed at containing the spread of COVID-19 in IDP camps, camp-like settings and in host communities. These facilities will be holding areas for IDPs with travel history between states and across the border in places such as Banki, Ngala, Mobbar (Damasak) and nearby LGAs in Borno Sate that receive IDPs and returnees from Cameroon, Niger, and Chad. Plans to decongest overcrowded camps, unplanned camps, or informal sites with poor living conditions and with space of less than 17m2 per person is a priority for the Sector and lands have to be secured and approved by the government. So far, approximately 25,472 shelters need to be constructed to support 140,096 IDPs in 49 campsites across 7 LGAs of Borno State. Humanitarian needs remain high and concerning as 19,780 households lack shelter, while another 78,562 households are in dire need of NFI assistance across locations. There is an urgent need to construct more shelters to accommodate 24,596 IDPs who are sleeping outside or sharing spaces, and over 21,000 living in reception centres. Non-Food Items (NFIs) are urgently needed given the increasing multiple displacements prompted by the deteriorating security environment and other socioeconomic factors. Additionally, the onset of the rainy season has left 19,781 shelters damaged or destroyed, directly affecting some 69,690 IDPs. Sporadic fire incidents destroyed some 39,106 shelters across camps in Muna Garage, Ngala, Mafa and Monguno areas of Borno State. Main challenges include lack of shelter construction materials and Tarpaulin due to supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Response

Sector discussions and activities prioritized the construction of quarantine facilities across Borno and Adamawa states. So far there are two quarantine facilities in Maiduguri and Pulka, Borno State, with a total capacity of 140 bed spaces. Construction of more quarantine facilities are ongoing in other LGAs across Borno state. To ensure preparedness and response to effects of the rainy season reinforcement and upgrade of identified worn-out makeshift shelters and construction of new shelters was carried out, as well as prepositioning of shelter and NFI materials across locations. The camps decongestion strategy was discussed with Borno State Government and immediate implementation plans were proposed. The state government also gave directives on the construction of transitional shelters Maiduguri, Jere and Konduga LGAs; immediate expansion of security perimeters in Monguno, Bama, Pulka and Dikwa, and the utilization of the Gubio land.

In support of the decongestion strategy, UNHCR and the Ministry of Rehabilitation Reconstruction and Resettlement (MRRR) have constructed 500 shelters in Banki, Bama LGA, and the same will be replicated in Ngala LGA. The additional space approved by the state government for the decongestion exercise in Banki could accommodate some 4,000 shelters. The perimeter extension in Dikwa was completed by NERI and approval for use of land is underway for the decongestion of the four congested campsites. Some 5,450 individuals benefitted from emergency shelter kits distribution, shelter construction or rehabilitation. A total 1,580 individuals also received 316 NFI kits during the reporting period. Adequate structures are being identified and assessed to be refurbished and used in case of a mass influx of IDPs in various locations in Borno State.

Gaps

The sector will continue to advocate for more land to facilitate the decongestion of overcrowded camps across Borno State. Sector partners will continue prepositioning shelter and NFIs materials for partners’ immediate response during an emergency. Access however remains a major challenge in parts of Borno state as well as partners’ capacity and funding constraints. About 19,780 households, including IDPs and returnees, are still in need of shelter and NFI support, including of emergency shelter and essential household items. The effects of heavy winds and rainstorms are far reaching, and the Sector is facing shortages of critical supplies and experiencing logistics challenges that hamper timely and immediate intervention. Additionally, Sector partners have also experienced supply chain disruptions triggered by COVID-19 pandemic.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Protection (General)

$25.1M
Funding required (USD)
2.5M
People targeted for protection assistance

Needs

With constant cross-border movements resulting in people who were refugees in neighbouring countries returning into Nigerian territory and persistent attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) on civilian and IDP locations, the protection environment has become more volatile and concerning. The socio-economic impact of the protracted crisis on IDPs is getting more severe and becoming a factor for population displacement. COVID-19 emergency measures, including restriction of movement, exacerbate the vulnerability of the affected populations, making access to services more challenging. With access to livelihoods severely impacted, breadwinners are mostly unable to provide for their families, disrupting family configurations. There are reports of petty thefts across camps, further exerting pressure on IDPs who have limited access to resources and income-generating activities. Following the closure of official border entry points, there are allegations of officials extorting people living in border areas including Damasak, Ngala and Banki who need access to markets on both sides. The consistent population movement especially into camps - where humanitarian aid and resources are already stretched - also comes with protection risks and vulnerabilities such as those arising from congestion and lack of resources. The lockdown also disrupted documentation services.

Response

During the reporting period, community volunteers were engaged in disseminating risk communication messages and raise awareness on the risks of COVID-19 pandemic and the precautions and mitigation measures to be adopted. This was enhanced with protection mainstreaming of preventive and response measures. The Sector developed an advocacy note on regulating the excessive use of authority while enforcing lockdown measures on populations. The Sector also engaged in developing a guidance note on protection concerns in COVID-19 isolation centres and supported the CCCM Sector in developing the camps decongestion strategy. General Protection partners deployed additional personnel to the border areas of Borno State to support and facilitate the process of refugee returns as well as support in the isolation of those coming into the territory and subsequent entry into camps. Protection desks were equipped with IEC material on COVID-19, and innovations were made in adapting messages and services to virtual service provision and door-to-door dissemination of key messages. Protection monitoring also continued during the reporting period.

In line with its responsibility to build capacity for preparedness and response, the Protection Sector organized a series of Virtual Learning sessions to support the development of partners’ capacities in recognizing, understanding and responding to protection issues. Sessions on various protection related issues included Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE), Trafficking in Persons, Accountability to Affected Populations and Protection Monitoring, Housing, Land and Property, integrating GBV in humanitarian action, legal frameworks for protection of IDPs, durable solutions and Information Counselling and Legal Assistance (ICLA). The summary report on the Virtual Learning sessions can be read here.

Gaps

Persistent attacks by NSAGs have triggered panic and safety concerns among civilian populations across camps and communities in Borno State. Fresh and multiple displacements are expected to persist on account of worsening insecurity in recent weeks, leading to an influx of new arrivals to already congested camps.

The dire socio-economic conditions of the affected populations require enhanced and coordinated response especially from Government. The lack of civil authorities in the LGAs outside Maiduguri, Borno capital, continues to hinder access to services especially related to documentation. The Sector will continue to engage with Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) for awareness of protection challenges in NE Nigeria and also continue efforts and coordination with other sectors to mitigate resort to negative coping mechanisms by affected population due to ongoing restrictive measures enforced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Sector is also in the process of harmonizing protection monitoring tools which, when completed, will enable an integrated protection monitoring and analysis which will inform interventions.

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Sector Status

Gender-Based Violence Sub-Sector

1.3M
People targeted for GBV assistance
$35.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The COVID-19 pandemic is heightening already existing vulnerabilities for gender-based violence, reducing survivors access to report, seek help or receive quality response services. In some situations, there has been an increase in the incidents of GBV; however, in north-east Nigeria, restrictions and lockdown measures have presented barriers for survivors who are seeking help and service provision.

Organizations providing GBV services have had to adapt and apply flexible approaches, in order to continue providing service for survivors and people in need. The GBV Sub-Sector has engaged in the development of COVID-19 response strategies, collaborating with the COVID-19 Task Force and supporting partners to maintain service provision.

Response

The GBV Sub-Sector (GBVSS) developed technical and strategic guidance notes and strategies, as well as compiled and shared relevant resources for partners to support response actions in the COVID-19 context. The resources are on GBV case management, the GBV information management system (GBVIMS), safe space management, PSEA, and other relevant resources. Staff have received appropriate training on adapting new guidelines and guidance notes to service provision.

The GBVSS facilitated the transition to remote service provision in the context of COVID-19. Partners established confidential spaces including service provision hubs to provide remote services through telephone helplines throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Maiduguri, Pulka and Monguno (Borno State). This enhanced access to GBV case management and psychosocial support services for survivors and other vulnerable individuals.

Facilities and service delivery points for GBV services, such as women and girl’s friendly spaces, integrated/women empowerment facilities, and one stop centres, have set up hand washing facilities and put hygiene measures in place to ensure staff and beneficiaries adhere to public health standards. Partners also set up designated areas (temporary confinement spaces or rooms) with dignity for beneficiaries showing signs or symptoms of COVID-19 while health teams are contacted. Partners also procured and provided COVID-19 prevention items and supplies to protection desks and women and girls friendly spaces. Moreover, GBV response teams in referral centres are following Infection, Prevention and Control procedures.

The GBVSS conducted mapping of critical GBV response stakeholders and updated GBV referral pathways. To support GBV response teams to respond appropriately, they were provided with personal protection supplies such as face masks, hand sanitizers, gloves, and other protective gear to meet the logistical needs of GBV survivors. GBV/PSEA messages were developed focusing on reporting channels, GBV service availability and referral pathways. The GBVSS also started the process of scaling up the rollout of Primero/GBVIMS+ to document case management practices during lockdowns with limited engagement. Given that remote service provision has risks associated with guaranteeing safety and confidentiality, GBVIMS+/Primero facilitates ethical and confidential incident data management and security.

The GBV Sub-Sector conducted a test run of Smart RR - a mobile application which enables survivors, social workers and service providers to report and refer GBV incidents to relevant service providers and authorities, conducts service mapping, automatically updates the referral directory, and collects and analyses referral data. The application is an innovation of a local NGO partner, built on the referral mechanism of the GBV Sub-Sector to mitigate existing challenges such as under-reporting and difficulties associated with accessing services.

Gaps

The reduced presence of humanitarian personnel, especially in some of the deep field locations, has strained available services and limited access to GBV service provision. Meanwhile, frontline staff and response teams lack access to adequate basic personal supplies to enable them to respond appropriately to the identified needs.

Community-based GBV prevention activities have also been limited due to physical distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. These are avenues through which communities are engaged on GBV awareness and avenues for seeking help for survivors.

Moreover, families directly affected by COVID-19 face serious stigma from community members especially when a family has been confirmed to be positive or is suspected. Additional efforts, including raising awareness to counter stigmatization, need to be undertaken to ensure the protection of people affected by COVID-19.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Child Protection Sub-Sector

1.8M
People targeted for child protection
$27.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The physical and psychological well-being of children in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states remains at risk due to the complex and protracted conflict. With the ongoing armed conflict in north-east Nigeria, children continue to be recruited and used by armed groups; others have been abducted, maimed, raped and killed.

Following the decision by the Northern Governors Forum as part of the state governments’ response to mitigating the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic, 186 Almajiri children (all boys) were relocated to Borno and Yobe states throughout March and April 2020. These relocation movements put the health and protection of children at risk given the ongoing pandemic and highlighted the need to address care and protection for children without parental care.  The Almajiri system involves parents sending their children, mostly boys, to distant locations for the purpose of acquiring religious (Koranic) education. While parents believe they are fulfilling their obligation to provide religious and moral education to their children free of charge, Almajiri children are often sent by their teachers (mallams) to beg in the streets and form a significant portion of children without parental care at risk of abuse, exploitation and neglect.

Response

In March 2020, the Child Protection Sub-Sector (CPSS) trained 31 child protection workers (15 women and 16 men) on delivering accountability through participation to enhance their understanding of the conceptual and practical aspects for accountability to affected populations focusing on children. To mainstream child protection into food security and livelihoods programming, the CPSS facilitated training on child protection concepts and principles and various forms of child protection risks. The training demonstrated how child protection issues are linked to food security and livelihoods and outlined measures that food security and livelihoods actors can take to prevent and mitigate protection risks for children.

In March 2020, the CPSS developed the Guidance Note on Child Protection Service Provision and Caring for Children in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, which provides practical guidance to child protection actors and aid workers in other sectors to facilitate safe child protection service provision during the COVID-19 pandemic in north-east Nigeria. The Sub-Sector also compiled examples of adapting child protection service delivery in the COVID-19 context, which were discussed to share experiences, address challenges and identify solutions to support child protection programming.  

In April 2020, the CPSS supported the Borno and Yobe state governments to prepare for and provide basic services to the Almajiri children in temporary shelters including food, water, health care and COVID-19 testing, as well as how to document the children for the eventual reunification with their families. The Sub-Sector also supported the state governments to develop guidelines to ensure that state government actors apply minimum basic health and child protection standards before, during and after returning the children to their states of origin and to support safe family reunification.

As part of its localization initiatives, $20,000 USD was made available by the Global Child Protection Area of Responsibility for child protection national NGOs (NNGOs) for: the procurement of protective personal equipment (PPE) for child protection workers; to support the development and production of communication materials on child protection; and to support two national NNGOs with individual grants to implement safe child protection services within the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.   

Gaps

While child protection actors adapted modalities to ensure the safe provision of prioritized child protection services including remote case management and psychosocial support services throughout COVID-19, this has been limited to locations where telecommunication is available. Stigmas associated with COVID-19 infections have complicated the provision of alternative care for children whose parents have tested for COVID-19. On the other hand, the lack of belief in the existence of COVID-19 has also proven to be a challenge for providing prioritized child protection services activities while adhering to physical distancing and other control measures. 

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Mine Action Sub-Sector

0.6M
People targeted for mine action
$7.9M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

In May and June, a series of attacks and an increase in preventable incidents involving unexploded ordnances (UXOs) demonstrated the urgent need for increased mine action efforts in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states.

After an attack by non-state armed groups in Monguno LGA (Borno State) on 13 June that hit the humanitarian hub, UNMAS conducted an assessment following reports that an unexploded projectile landed in front of the facility where aid workers have accommodation and offices. This assessment also led to the discovery of another unexploded ordnance in one of the town’s most populated areas. Additionally, assessment missions in Gwoza, Ngala and Mobbar (Damasak) LGAs of Borno State further underscored the severity of the threat posed by UXOs. These developments indicate that civilians and aid workers are increasingly at risk of becoming victims of explosive incidents, and that humanitarians are in need of training to effectively, efficiently and safely prevent the associated risks.

Furthermore, May and June witnessed an increase in preventable incidents killing and injuring civilians such as: an unexploded ordnance being picked up on farmland; a child sorting out scrap metal; a herdsman triggering an explosive device while grazing his cattle; and a few incidents where people were clearing the environment or a field within the community to prepare for resettlement. This increased trend shows how crucial mine action is to prevent explosive incidents and save lives in the BAY states, including through non-technical surveys, explosive ordnance risk education and victim assistance.

Response

Following assessment missions, UNMAS launched the “Humanitarian Hub Campaign” to sensitize and train aid workers in the deep field on how to prevent UXO incidents and safely remove explosive remnants. In May and June, 77 humanitarian personnel across humanitarian hubs in Ngala, Banki, Monguno, Bama and Gwoza LGAs of Borno State received training on managing incidents involving explosive remnants of war. In response to the UXO that was found in Monguno town, UNMAS coordinated between local communities, the police and the military to ensure its prompt clearance. The Danish Demining Group swiftly followed up with some of the victims and survivors of recent explosive incidents and implemented emergency EORE in Ngala LGA (Borno State) and Buni Yadi (Yobe State). In May, Mine Action Partners reached a total of 11,375 people (2,756 girls; 3,514 boys; 2,503 women; and 2,602 men) with explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) through 724 sessions conducted for IDPs, members of host communities, residents, and returnees in 13 LGAs across the BAY states. In June, Mine Action partners reached a total of 42,029 people (10,672 girls; 12,175 boys; 11,035 women; and 8,147 men) with EORE through 3,721 sessions delivered to IDPs, host community, residents and returnees in 15 LGAs across Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states.

Gaps

Underfunding for the Mine Action Sub-Sector remains a major gap in implementing crucial life-saving activities amid an increase in armed attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) leaving explosive remnants of war scattered in areas where both civilians and aid workers carry out daily activities

Community leaders in deep field locations have expressed concerns that the risks of explosive incidents will be heightened as communities start venturing out onto farmlands to harvest their crops. Therefore, community leaders requested for a training of trainers on EORE, as well as more long-term and inclusive support for victims and survivors of explosive incidents. The “Humanitarian Hubs Campaign” will continue in Dikwa and Damasak (Borno State) at a later stage, as part of efforts to prepare and educate aid workers on how to safely identify and react to UXO incidents.

To mitigate these threats and to better assist victims and survivors, more support for the sub-sector’s risk prevention, assessment and clearance operations is essential.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Housing, Land and Property Sub-Sector

$0.4M
Funding required (USD)
0.9M
People targeted for HLP assistance

Needs

In June, four evictions cases involving about 123 households in informal camps and camp-like settings were reported to NRC through referrals, community-based leaders and focal points. This is twice the number of cases received in May. Reasons for eviction are landowners wanting their land for commercial purposes or for personal use. Restrictions measures put in place due to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to a sharp increase in the number of IDPs living in rented accommodation within host communities struggling to pay rent, meet basic needs or provide for their families. Eviction of IDPs without alternative accommodation increases exposure to several protection risks such as homelessness. Many IDPs were forced to relocate to shared accommodation with other IDPs in other informal settlements leading to overcrowding and added pressure on available resources. The situation calls for partners to scale up response in eviction mitigation and diversion.

Response

In May and June, the Sector provided cash-for-rent support to 257 vulnerable households (HHs) on the verge of being evicted in Borno and Adamawa states. Through its eviction monitoring mechanism, NRC will continue to ensure that the tenants’ rights, such as the right to peaceful enjoyment of property, are also being respected.

From 17-18 May 2020, NRC held a two-day awareness-raising session on HLP for humanitarian organisations implementing CCCM activities in formal and informal camps within MMC and Jere LGAs of Borno. The sessions were aimed at raising awareness on the need to mainstream HLP in CCCM interventions to mitigate the risks of evictions as many IDPs in across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states have settled on lands without seeking prior consent of the lawful owners.

On 26 June, the Sector held a consultative meeting with traditional leaders from Bolori ward, MMC LGA, on selection criteria for beneficiaries of emergency cash-for-rent support as part of the Sector’s eviction prevention emergency response during the COVID-19 pandemic. The meeting focused on the role of community leaders in resolving HLP disputes within their communities.    

Gaps

Arbitrary evictions and lack of concrete/sustainable strategy to address evictions and related challenges is likely to degenerate into multiple displacement for IDPs and returnees across the BAY states. The HLP SWG has put forward the following strategies to address short and long-term challenges:

  1. The sector will continue to facilitate dialogue, negotiations and training sessions with traditional institutions, Government agencies and private landowners on HLP rights and their roles in upholding and protecting these rights.

  2. The SWG will use the decongestion strategy to ensure that identification of land will take into account the juxtaposition of informal, traditional and legal frameworks that may conflict with each other. This will ensure that IDPs are able to remain in the property or on the land where they will be relocated to for a reasonable period of time.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Education

$54.5M
Funding required (USD)
3.1M
People targeted for education assistance

Needs

Due to school closure across the country as part of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 pandemic, more than 4 million children across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states have been without access to education since the beginning of April. There is need to develop alternative ways and methods of learning to enable children access education and other services that were provided via schools or temporary learning centers (TLCs). Assessing the best alternative tools and platforms (radio, TV, Internet) to reach more children, especially in the hard-to-reach areas and IDP camps will be essential.

During this period of school closure, aid actors need to step up awareness and advocacy on the protection of schools against their use or conversion to isolation centers, decongestion option for IDP camps, healthcare center, markets or for other purposes outside of education.

Clear guidelines on school reopening during and after this pandemic are critical to ensure the safety of pupils. Many parents have expressed concerns about school closure. At the moment, there is no explanation on when and under which conditions schools will re-open.

Response

The Education in Emergency Working Group (EiEWG), through ROHI, engaged stakeholders from different sectors including the Ministry of Education, the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB), the Local Education Authority, and Local Government Authority officials and School Based Management Committees (SBMCs) from Adamawa and Borno States through sensitization on the Safe Schools Common Approach, exploring the different risk areas and soliciting for a collective approach towards ensuring that schools are safe.

Some 56 people from Adamawa (five women and 22 men) and Borno (five women and 34 men) participated in the workshop. In Dikwa LGA of Borno State, the decision to convert one of the largest schools (Shehu Sanda) to a COVID-19 isolation facility was rescinded by the Primary Health Care (PHC) coordinator after attending the workshop ensuring that pupils will be able to use the facility for learning once schools re-open across the country.

National guidelines for safe school reopening have been developed to review and measure the readiness and preparedness of the education sector of the country. This is an achievement in terms of getting the country to agree on a policy document to guide the process for re-opening schools at national and sub-national levels. It is also a strategic document for partners and donors to support the safe re-opening process. The Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) and EiEWG will utilize the document to support the training of various stakeholders on their roles in ensuring a safe and protective learning environment post-COVID-19 pandemic.

The sector has worked with SUBEB and Ministry of Education to identify TV, radio stations and set up a calendar for remote lessons and classes. In the BAY states, lessons through radio have started and a survey is being conducted to identify how many children are being reached.

UNICEF and ROHI sensitized 45,036 individuals in 12 LGAs across the BAY states on COVID-19 pandemic and impacts, alternative learning methods, improved personal hygiene and safe return to school. People reached include 30,982 children (19,473 girls, 13,507 boys) and 12,056 adults (3,378 females, 8,678 males) including teachers, parents, school administrators and SBMC members.

Education Sector partners completed 31 handwashing stations in schools and learning centers in Gwoza, Hawul, Jere, Konduga, Magumeri, MMC, Mobbar and Monguno LGAs in Borno.

Gaps

It is still very difficult to reach many children through radio and TV programmes following the closure of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Sector needs funding to develop alternative program and strategies. Radio stations’ broadcast coverage is very weak and poor. Solar-powered radios and pre-recorded lessons need to be distributed to reach more children and scale-up the response.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Emergency Telecommunications

$3.0M
Funding required for ETS services (USD)
100
Organizations targeted

Needs

The ETS supports the communications needs of the entire humanitarian community both in Maiduguri and in the remote field hubs. Movement restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has required most ETS staff to work from home to help contain the spread of the virus in north-east Nigeria. In May and June, only one ETS staff member worked in the office at the Red Roof Humanitarian Hub in Maiduguri, while all others worked remotely.

Response

Amid the COVID-19 response, the ETS team continues to provide its core services – Internet connectivity in eight humanitarian hubs and security communications in 10 operational areas across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states. Since the beginning of 2020, the ETS has provided Internet connectivity services to more than 3,327 users from 101 organizations (15 UN agencies and 86 non-governmental organizations). In May and June, the ETS programmed 29 radios for humanitarian responders to improve communication between staff in the region and to support their safety and security. The ETS helpdesk resolved 191 issues reported by users. The team also continued to conduct capacity building capacities by delivering four webinar sessions on security communications for more than 30 humanitarians in Gwoza and Monguno LGAs of Borno State. In May, as part of the COVID-19 response, the ETS created a concept note for the provision of Internet connectivity in the proposed isolation wards for humanitarians that may be infected with COVID-19 in Maiduguri.

Gaps

The ETS has had to postpone a number of activities including field missions and physical training sessions due to travel restrictions and the work-from-home modality caused by COVID-19. The pandemic has also led to delays in staff recruitment and deployment. The restrictions on field travel will directly impact the set Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for this year’s ETS activities. One delayed project is the installation of hybrid solar-based power system, which aims to provide a reliable and sustainable power supply for humanitarian responders who currently depend on fossil fuel generators. The ETS will resume the deployment and installation of the hybrid solar-based power system as soon as COVID-19 travel restrictions have been eased.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

WASH

$104.1M
Funding required (USD)
2.5M
People targeted for WASH assistance

Needs

The outbreak of COVID-19 in Nigeria and its spread to Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states in the north-east increased pressure on the limited capacity to deliver enough water across many IDP camps, as well as essential supplies like soap and hand washing stations. These items have become scarce, resulting in price inflation due to demand. Partners will focus on intensive hygiene promotion to prevent COVID-19, including raising awareness of proper hand washing techniques with soap. Increasing access to enough water remains a high priority to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

Response

The WASH Sector developed guidelines, strategy and hygiene promotion protocols for the COVID-19 preparedness and response.  These have been discussed during partner meetings, shared widely with partners and made available on the sector website-for reference. Physical distancing, hand washing stations at strategic locations within camps, door-to-door campaigns as opposed to mass gatherings and improvised distribution techniques are being implemented with the support of CCCM and Health Sector partners.Soap and information, education and communication (IEC) materials have also been disseminated during food distributions.

The Sector, through the Public Health Emergency Operation Centre and risk communications group has supported the development and distribution of IEC materials for COVID-19. Bulk production of posters, fliers and pamphlets is required in order to reach a wider audience on COVID-19 risk and prevention measures. The WASH Sector support all priority IDP camps and LGAs to develop business continuity plans, highlighting the need to maintain the current level of WASH services even when movement is restricted or locked down during the COVID-19 response.

The Sector pre-positioned 3,572 WASH response kits in Adamawa, Yobe and Ngala (Borno State) warehouses for rapid response by WASH Sector partners in case of a disease outbreak, like cholera or COVID-19) or new population displacements.

The Sector supported the Global Cholera Joint Operational Framework development by sharing insights from the Nigeria Emergency Response and lessons learned. In April, the WASH Sector reviewed the cholera preparedness and response plan together with the Health Sector. Partners are also working with Health, Food and CCCM sector partners to identify and construct temporary quarantine centres in seven LGAs in Borno State. COVID-19 specific achievements include but are not limited to: 833 handwashing stations set up in public and strategic areas around camps in Gwoza, Bama, MMC, Jere, Ngala and Dikwa in Borno State. The same locations have received about 28,000 hygiene kits, including soap for hand washing. Online reporting dashboard can be found here.  

Gaps

Water trucking remains an expensive option to increase water access to populations where coverage is low, while ground water potential is a challenge or new influx occurred/new covid19 cases identified. Long term design plans and investment is required to upgrade systems and reticulate water for maximum productivity.

The WASH Sector common pipeline stock is running low on crucial supplies, especially soap and chlorine due to increased demand for COVID-19 and cholera prevention and response. About 200,000 pieces of soap, 200 drums of chlorine and about 800 additional handwashing facilities are required, so additional funding is necessary to cover the gaps. For camps that have been established for over four years, this ratio of persons per latrine should be brought down to 20. Lack of enough land to construct sanitation facilities, specifically gender-segregated latrines, remains a major challenge to improving sanitation and hygiene services in camps and camp-like settings.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Early Recovery

1.6M
People targeted for early recovery
$112.7M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The economic crisis as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting communities and local economies in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states. Lockdown measures and movement restrictions have disrupted livelihood opportunities. Reduction of basic services and livelihoods are exacerbating the vulnerabilities of affected people such as increased unemployment and loss of remittances. Daily laborers and people engaging in cash-for-work activities are the most affected due to restricted labour migration and closure of small businesses. Youth and women in the informal sector are also hard hit. Supply shortages as a result of movement restrictions are also reducing economic opportunities and decreasing rural and urban incomes thereby affecting people’s ability to buy basic commodities. This economic downturn is making it more difficult to lay the foundations for sustainable recovery and a return to longer term development in the north-east.

Response

In March and April, Early Recovery partners continued to rehabilitate or construct market stalls and classroom blocks in Adamawa State. Partners rehabilitated six market stalls in Madagali LGA and built two new ones in Michika LGA. In addition, five classroom blocks in Madagali LGA and four in Michika LGA were rehabilitated. Partners also started rehabilitation work on two slaughterhouses in Adamawa State. To complete the various rehabilitation and construction work, partners provided emergency employment opportunities to 74 skilled workers and 842 unskilled workers through the cash-for-work modality.

In Askira/Uba LGA of Borno State, Early Recovery partners rehabilitated four boreholes and one manual hand-pump benefiting approximately 1,500 people. In addition, partners are drilling a new borehole at the Hussara Health Centre, which will benefit 2,500 people. Construction of new incinerators at the Yimir Ali and Chul Primary Health Centres is ongoing. Furthermore, sector partners rehabilitated 22 boreholes in Geidam and Yunusari LGAs in Yobe State, to increase water supply for domestic use and agricultural production.    

In Maiduguri, Borno State, partners continued to carry out waste management activities. A total of 3,312 people (2,578 men and 734 women) were employed through cash-for-work and cleaned up waste in 23 community areas across 10 wards.

In March and April, Sector partners trained crisis-affected people on vocational and business skills to increase their livelihood opportunities in MMC, Bama, Ngala and Damasak LGAs of Borno State. A total of 390 people received training in various skills such as carpentry, tailoring, shoe-making, micro-business, pasta making, baking and extracting groundnut oil.

Around 1,050 people completed enterprise skills and apprenticeship trainings with community-based master craftsmen across eight LGAs of Borno and Adamawa states. A total of 250 youth received start-up grants of 60,000 Naira each (first tranche and second tranche) in five LGAs in Borno State. In Adamawa State, 250 people received start-up grants of 30,000 each (first tranche) across three LGAs.

In Yobe State, 100 people received small businesses and livestock apprenticeship training, while partners also raised awareness on preventing the spread of COVID-19. In Damaturu, the capital of Yobe State, vocational training such as tailoring, fashion and design, building and interlocking, and cosmetology is ongoing for 30 trainees. The trainees will also undergo a competency test, financial literacy and business development trainings, after which they will receive business start-up kits.

In Jere and MMC LGAs, Borno State, partners trained 92 youth on employability and life skills including work place preparedness, professional and personal development, and job application processes.  Partners are also currently providing technical training support to 125 youth on business and entrepreneurship skills.

Gaps

COVID-19 posed a serious challenge to implementing resilience and recovery activities across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states due to government-imposed travel restrictions. The presence of Sector partners has been limited to a few essential staff, with many staff working from home, reducing supervision and monitoring of activities.

In addition, the security situation continued to be fragile. Incidents of attacks by non-state armed groups were reported in Nanam, the headquarters of Yunusari LGA in Yobe State. Threats of a looming attack in Yunusari and Geidam LGAs (Yobe State) also led to a two-day suspension of activities there.

The Early Recovery Sector will continue providing technical support to partners to implement recovery and resilience activities throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Sector partners will apply preparedness and response plans to deliver messaging and raise awareness of the coronavirus pandemic to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. These measures will help efforts to continue non-COVID-19 interventions such as cash-for-work; unconditional cash distributions; support for the establishment of small businesses; vocational and business management trainings; livelihood support and economic recovery; and rehabilitating basic infrastructure. These activities will also contribute to curbing the spread of the virus, especially by ensuring the provision of enough water, soap and other critical WASH infrastructure.

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Situation Report
Feature
Halima at water collection point – Shuwari-6, el-Miskin Transit Camp Maiduguri, Borno

Water for Life: A borehole restores dignity and reignites a community’s dreams

“Water in our community is now clean and tastes good. There is enough water go around for everyone in our community. Now we are happy and comfortable. We can once again have hope to build our futures. We are lucky” Halima Mohammed, a 26-year-old woman from Jinaina village of Gamboru Ngala of Borno Statei, Nigeria benefited from water and sanitation interventions implemented by CIDAR with support from the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund after fleeing her village to an IDP Camp in Maiduguri.

Here is her story on how access to water changed her life.

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Situation Report
Feature

Cash Working Group Annual Report

In the north-eastern Nigerian states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY), where 10.6 million people are currently in need of life-saving humanitarian aid, violent attacks and insecurity in some areas have made it difficult for humanitarian actors to reach some of the most vulnerable people. Finding efficient and effective means of delivering assistance is essential. Since 2016, humanitarian actors have increasingly been providing support through cash-based assistance to ensure that essential needs are met, while providing an avenue for the most vulnerable to become self-reliant and participate in economic activities that boost local markets.

More than one-third of all humanitarian assistance in 2019 in the BAY states was through cash and voucher assistance, reaching more than 1.5 million people throughout the year. In 2016, only nine per cent of humanitarian aid was provid-ed through cash and voucher assistance (CVA). This demonstrates the increasing use of CVA, based on not only its cost effectiveness but its effectivity in building bridges towards recovery from the crisis.

In May, the Nigeria Cash Working Group issued its first-ever annual report which provides an overview and analysis of the impact that cash programming and activities have had in the humanitarian response in north-east Nigeria. Read the full report here.

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Situation Report
Feature
SAMSON TIMOTHY, GREENCODE PROJECT OFFICER (LEFT) WITH ABU MOHAMMED (RIGHT)

Watering Seeds of Healing and Hope

“The care and concern that GREENCODE gave me, helped me overcome suffering and helped me in the most practical way: helping me access clean water for drinking and bathing,”-Abu Mohammed, internally displaced from Baga town, Kukawa Local Government Area to Maiduguri, the Borno State capital.

Read full story here.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Nigeria: Access constraints drive up humanitarian needs

In Borno State, most roads leading in and out of Maiduguri, the state capital, are insecure for civilians and aid workers. Across the three states, some 1.2 million people are out of reach for humanitarian organizations and deprived of much-needed assistance and civil authority services. Humanitarian organizations have faced increased access constraints and security-related incidents that hamper more effective humanitarian response in the three states. With the upsurge in attacks over the past year, and specifically in recent months, aid organizations were forced to scale down activities and temporarily withdraw their staff in some areas.

Read the full article here.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Ngala Nigeria Fire Outbreak

Nigeria: At least 14 killed and 8,000 affected in Ngala camp fire

At least 14 people were killed and 15 others wounded in a major fire outbreak that ravaged the International School (ISS) IDP camp in Ngala LGA on 16 April.

The fire reportedly started around 10.00 a.m. from a cooking point, spreading and destroying over 300 shelters and one communal shelter before it was put out. More than 8,000 IDPs were directly affected with homes, property and valuables lost to the inferno. The wounded IDPs are receiving treatment at the camp clinic run by partners.

Aid workers and government authorities started a rapid assessment of the impacts and are currently mobilizing support, particularly shelters, food and NFIs for the affected people. ISS camp, which hosts over 40,000 IDPs is one of two major camps and several host communities in Ngala LGA which shares a border with Cameroon and continues to receive influx of new arrivals from neighbouring LGAs (such as Kala Balge), as well as refugees crossing back from Cameroon.

Despite the scale up of sensitization and awareness programmes on fire outbreak prevention and mitigation measures by partners, the congestion of camps, further exacerbated by the daily influx and clustering of makeshift shelters (mostly made from dry and flammable raffias), increases the risks of fire incidents.

Partners continue to advocate for the allocation of additional lands to allow for the construction of new shelters to decongest camps across the state.

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Media

Yassine Gaba, Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator in Nigeria visited Muna Garage camp for internally displaced persons on 28 May 2020 to show solidarity with thousands of vulnerable people affected by a recent fire outbreak.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Civil Military Coordination

In January and February, Illegal Vehicle Check Points (VCPs) set up by non-state armed groups and armed criminal gangs continued to pose security constraints and hamper the movement of humanitarian goods along main supply routes. Incidents were reported on roads connecting Bama-Pulka, Maiduguri – Ngamdu, Benisheikh – Wajiro, Pulka – Gwoza, Gajiram – Monguno, Maiduguri -Ngamdu, Dapchi-Damaturu and Damasak-Gubio.

During the months of January and February, organizing regular CMCoord meetings proved challenging due to insecurity. Fuel restrictions and bureaucratic bottlenecks on fuel transport continue to pose challenges and impede humanitarian operations.

In February, longstanding security issues preventing nearly 400 vacant shelters from being allocated in Monguno LGA were resolved through discussions between the military and humanitarian partners. This resolution allowed for the allocation of shelters to start on 26 February and the process is still ongoing.

Security concerns limited travel to the deep field to hold CMCoord discussions at the LCG level. Meanwhile, weekly meetings between OCHA CMCoord, Sector Leads and the CIMIC officer at the Theatre Command were regularly postponed, causing a delay in resolving key issues with the military. Monthly CMCoord meetings at Abuja level were held, however participation was low.

The movement of humanitarian cargo was hampered by additional requests for vendor, contractor, vehicle and driver details made by the military. This issue was raised and a new procedure was agreed upon and shared with the Theatre Command for approval.   

In February, the issue of insufficient fuel to operate the generators at the humanitarian hubs in Banki (Bama LGA) was resolved. The Theatre Commander agreed to increase the amount of fuel humanitarians can transport per week from 1,000 litres to 2,250 litres. This will enable the hub in Banki to operate the generators up to 24 hours a day and ensure the smooth continuation of humanitarian activities.

Despite positive developments in the movement of fuel to power the humanitarian hubs, at the time of reporting, each weekly quota has to be negotiated separately with the Theatre Commander. Amidst a deteriorating security situation and an escalation of a health care crisis, it is critical that healthcare facilities and hubs have adequate and regular supplies of fuel to save lives.

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Nigeria

Situation Report
Analysis

Adamawa State Humanitarian Situation Overview

Adamawa State continues to experience increased humanitarian needs driven by conflict, attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs), and inter-communal clashes. Insecurity continues to pervade the state with a series of armed attacks in communities around the fringes of the Sambisa forest by NSAGs. The growing insecurity continues to hamper access to vulnerable returnees in Michika, Madagali, and now some parts of Gombi Local Government Area that require much needed relief and recovery assistance.

Read the full report here.

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