Nigeria

Situation Report

Highlights

  • The number of people in need of urgent assistance in north-east Nigeria rose from 7.9 million at the beginning of 2020 to 10.6 million since the onset of COVID-19
  • Up to 7 million people may become food insecure, up from pre-COVID-19 figures of 3.7 million
  • Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states have recorded COVID-19 cases, including in IDP camps. Borno is among the worst affected states in Nigeria. COVID-19 is deepening humanitarian needs
  • In light of COVID-19, humanitarians have adapted the response, setting up hand washing stations and quarantine shelters and introduced physical distancing during distributions
  • Aid workers reached 5.2 million people in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states with life-saving assistance in 2019
Nigeria Situation Update Photo
Local CSOs HEWA and COMO holding sensitization meetings with traditional and religious leaders in Yola South LGA, Adamawa State. Photo: HEWA/Abubakar Halilu

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Situation Report

Key Figures

10.6M
People in need of humanitarian assistance
7.8M
People targeted for humanitarian aid
1.8M
People internally displaced
3.8M
People in need of food security assistance
1.1M
People in need of nutrition assistance
1.2M
People in inaccessible areas

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Situation Report

Funding

$1.1B
Required
$355.6M
Received
33%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Trond Jensen

Head of Office, OCHA Nigeria

Eve Sabbagh

Head of Public Information, OCHA Nigeria

Nigeria

Situation Report
Background
Copy of WHD2020 #RealLifeHeroes SM Template (2)

Situation Overview

In July, the execution of five civilians in Borno State, among whom three aid workers, sent shock waves throughout the humanitarian community. The UN Secretary-General and the Humanitarian Coordinator in Nigeria vehemently condemned the killings and reiterated calls that humanitarians and civilians should never be targeted and should be protected at all times. Their lives, and the lives of all humanitarians who were killed in the line of service, were commemorated and honored on World Humanitarian Day on 19 August, under the theme “Real Life Heroes”. On this occasion, people across Nigeria paid tribute to aid workers on the frontlines, including health workers and community volunteers who steadfastly continue to deliver support to those in need amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

Insecurity along roads is a grave concern for the safety of aid workers and civilians, particularly as non-state armed groups increasingly set up illegal vehicular checkpoints (ICVPs) along main supply routes. In July, a total of 14 ICVP incidents were recorded, mainly in Borno State, up from a five such incidents in June. In August, the trend increased even further with 16 incidents recorded over the month. This concerning trend not only presents risks for aid workers and other civilians of being abducted or killed, but also impedes the delivery of life-saving assistance.

The ongoing rainy season is also constraining the transport of relief items, as heavy rains and subsequent flooding across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states are exacerbating road conditions and key supply routes are nearly impassable. Furthermore, heavy rainfalls have affected tens of thousands of civilians, mostly internally displaced persons, living in camps and camp-like settings across the BAY states. In July and August, heavy rainfalls and floods affected nearly 100,000 people (20,935 households) across the operational areas and humanitarians promptly pumped out water and provided sandbags, emergency shelter repair kits and other urgent relief items.

The rainy season also poses additional risks for the outbreak of endemic diseases like malaria and cholera, and humanitarian organizations combined awareness-raising and prevention with continued efforts to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Partners continued to raise awareness on disease outbreaks and hygiene measures to prevent COVID-19, as well as promoted proper hygiene in camps and host communities.

Overcrowding in camps and camp-like settings also increases the risks of disease outbreaks, and the humanitarian community continues to advocate for the decongestion of IDP camps. A decongestion strategy is under development by the CCCM and shelter sectors in order to expand IDP camps and build additional shelters to mitigate risks.

While partners are advocating for the decongestion of camps, the Borno State Government urged the Borno State Task Force on the Return of Refugees and IDPs to accelerate the process to resettle IDPs in early August, with hopes to relocate all IDPs from Maiduguri to their Local Government Areas of origin by May 2021. On 10 August, the Borno State Government resettled 500 IDPs in Monguno to their area of origin in Kukawa LGA. Humanitarian partners, who are not currently on ground in Kukawa, were however not engaged in the process and there are concerns many IDP returnees in Kukawa are left without basic assistance or protection services, raising concerns whether the conditions for IDPs are conducive to allow for resettlement. Humanitarian partners are continuing to advocate for all returns to be in line with the Kampala Convention and for the conditions to allow for safe, voluntary and dignified returns.

Humanitarian partners continue to deliver assistance despite additional challenges posed by COVID-19, heightened insecurity and access constraints. Funding for the Humanitarian Response Plan 2020 is however at a historic low. As of end of August, only 33 per cent of the total $1.08 billion funding appeal to provide life-saving assistance for 7.8 million people had been received. A high-level online event “North-east Nigeria: Act Now, Avert the Worst” was held on 13 August to raise awareness of the worsening humanitarian crisis in the north-east. For this high-level briefing, the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, Mr Edward Kallon, was joined by the Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development, Hajiya Sadiya Umar Farouq and Borno State Governor, Prof Babagana Zulum, as well as other UN and NGO representatives. Together the panel stressed that the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates the dire humanitarian situation in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states, and risks wreaking havoc on the most vulnerable population. The high-level event also called on urgent funding to avoid reversing progress made since the joint humanitarian response started in 2015.

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Situation Report
Visual

North-East Nigeria Humanitarian Snapshot

North-East Nigeria Humanitarian Snapshot

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Media

Humanitarian Coordinator Statement on the Killing of Aid Workers in Borno State

I am utterly shocked and horrified by the gruesome killing of some of our colleagues and partners by non-state armed groups in Borno State. My most heartfelt condolences go to their loved ones, families, friends and co-workers.

They were committed humanitarians who devoted their lives to helping vulnerable people and communities in an area heavily affected by violence. Our colleagues and partners were abducted while travelling on a main route connecting the northern town of Monguno with Maiduguri, the Borno State capital. Their safety and securing their safe release have been our highest priority since they were captured last month.

I strongly condemn all violence targeting aid workers and the civilians they are assisting. I am also troubled by the number of illegal vehicular checkpoints set up by non-state armed groups along main supply routes. These checkpoints disrupt the delivery of life-saving assistance and heighten the risks for civilians of being abducted, killed or injured, with aid workers increasingly being singled out. Full press statement here.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Yobe State Humanitarian Situation Analysis (April to June 2020)

Conflict continued in Yobe State, including NSAG attacks and clashes with government forces along the LGAs of Geidam and Gujba, bordering Borno State. The security situation in these LGAs remains unpredictable and volatile. Government forces continue to carry out operations and maintain a high level of alertness following NSAG activities across border LGAs.

There is a significant increase in the threats of attacks on both civilian and military convoys, abduction/kidnapping (at illegal vehicle checkpoints), and IEDs along these routes. UXOs also pose a threat, with incidents reported in June in Gujba LGA, with the police issuing warning of widespread threats across the LGAs, particularly across farming areas. NSAG attacks were targeting civilian communities across Bursari, Geidam, Gujba LGAs, and abductions in Lantewa, Tarmuwa LGA along the Damaturu – Babangida road. An attack in Buni Gari (27/04/2020), Gujba LGA, resulted in the burning down of activity centers of some humanitarian actors in the community, which triggered a temporary suspension of operations.

Download the full report here.

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Situation Report
Feature
Zarah (left) and Hyelsinta (right) spending quality time together following Zarah’s recovery

Providing a New Chance at Life to Crisis-Affected Women in North-East Nigeria

“I feel glad and fulfilled knowing that I was at the right place at the right time to help save a life. This for me is the true definition of being a humanitarian,” Hyelsinta Ahmadu, a GBV Nurse at a Women and Girl’s Friendly Space in north-east Nigeria, run by Jireh Doo Foundation and established with funding from the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund.

Hyelsinta’s intervention last year saved the life of Zarah, a young woman in the community, who was on the brink of life and death due to complications giving birth. Their story is one of hope, transformation and change. Read full story here.

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Situation Report
Media
Damage to UNHAS Heli in Damasak

Humanitarian Coordinator Statement on Attack in Damasak, Damage to Aid Helicopter

I am gravely concerned by reports of another violent attack by non-state armed groups in Damasak, Borno State, on 2 July, in which at least two innocent civilians lost their lives, including a five-year old child. Several others were injured, and a humanitarian helicopter was hit, sustaining serious damage.

I extend my sincere condolences to the families of the civilians who lost their lives in the attack and wish a prompt recovery to those injured.

I welcome the Government commitment to investigate the attack and swiftly bring to justice the perpetrators. I deplore that a UN Humanitarian Air Service helicopter was hit by bullets during the attack. No aid workers were on board at the time and crew members are all safe. My thoughts are also with the crew and I commend them for piloting the chopper back to safety during this critical situation.

Full press statement here.

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Situation Report
Feature
 NHF-funded emergency water and sanitation

Nigerian Humanitarian Fund Annual Report

In 2019, 7.1 million people, most of them women and children, were in need of urgent assistance in the conflict-affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe. Throughout the year, some 180,000 people were forced to flee their homes, some for a second or third time since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to increased attacks and insecurity.

In this context, the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund (NHF) has proven to be a rapid and flexible tool enabling humanitarian actors to adapt to the fast-changing humanitarian emergency.

The NHF Annual Report reviews the Fund's operations and demonstrates how it was used strategically to address the urgent humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable Nigerians in 2019.

Read the full report here.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Food Security

3.3M
People targeted for food assistance
$315.1M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

Food prices have continued to rise significantly across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states. In Borno and Yobe states, prices of key staples saw a seasonal spike due to decreased availability of market stocks since July, ascribed to the lean season, underlying high inflation and the Eid celebration in late July. For instance, the prices of local rice, red beans and maize have continued to increase over three months in most markets of Borno and Yobe, ranging from 13 per cent to 85 per cent increase in various markets (according to the WFP July 2020 Market Monitoring report for Borno and Yobe). The REACH bi-weekly monitoring also indicated that fuel vendors reported a 16 per cent increase in petrol prices. The WFP Monthly Market Monitoring report for Borno and Yobe states indicated that at the height of the lean season (between May and August), the prices of most staple food commodities are generally expected to remain well above average, due to reduced market supplies and increased demand owing to continued depletion of food stocks at the household level.

Partners will continue monitoring food prices to ascertain the Survival Minimum Expenditure Basket (SMEB) in the respective locations of operation and compare them against the transfer values.

With the June 2020 Cadre Harmonise (CH) update indicating an increase in number of people in need from 3.7 to 4.3 million as a result of COVID-19 pandemic and related effects, partners started the scale-up to meet the needs of additional food insecure people. The Food Security Sector continued to advocate in order to fill these gaps.

Response

In July, FSS Sector partners sustained the delivery of life-saving and critical rainy season activities including food distributions and provision of livelihood support, despite the adjustments, including reduction of staff footprints and additional bureaucratic procedures as part of COVID-19 risk mitigation measures.

In July, slightly over 3.1 million people received food security assistance. Of these, 45 per cent received emergency food assistance and the remainder reached with agricultural and livelihoods support.

The Food Security Sector together with WASH, Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) and Protection sectors continued with joint approach on messaging, hygiene kit delivery, physical distancing measures and protection-related monitoring and referral activities.

Two partners out of four applicants for the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund (NHF) 2020 First Standard Allocation round were selected to provide wet feeding programs to refugee-returnees from Cameroon, Chad and Niger at quarantine and isolation centres in Borno State. The geographic locations targeted included Bama, Banki, and Pulka, Gamboru-Ngala and Damasak in Borno State which have been the main reception points for refugee-returnees. This was done with the support of the Strategic Review Committee (SRC) of the Food Security Sector. The Sector partners started planning for the establishment of a taskforce on inaccessible locations assessments for the October 2020 CH. This involved the first planning meeting with other key actors. Partners continued with the livestock support programmes reaching 460 registered youths who received cattle in Jere (260) and Mafa (200) LGAs of Borno.

Gaps

Restrictions on transporting and delivering fertilizer are reducing crop productivity, especially in Borno State. Delayed food dispatches to field locations due to poor road conditions during the rainy season are another major challenge for Sector partners, while communal asset-creation activities have been limited by COVID-19 restrictions. Reduction or restrictions on humanitarian flights to some deep field locations have also reduced activities.

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Sector Status

Nutrition

0.8M
People targeted for nutrition assistance
$103.5M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The nutrition situation in the BAY states is steadily deteriorating due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, poor sanitation conditions due to the ongoing rains and reduced access to food as the lean season starts. In June 2020, the number of severely acutely malnourished admitted into the nutrition treatment programme increased by 35 per cent compared to the admission rate during the same time period in 2019.

To address the increased acute malnutrition rates, the Nutrition Sector requires additional resources and funding to procure Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) and to expand the stabilization centres numbers and capacities.

In addition, the Nutrition Sector is aiming to increase the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition across the BAY states to ensure that malnutrition in children is detected early on and does not deteriorate further, thereby overwhelming the capacities of nutrition centres and resources to treat severe cases.

Response

In June 2020, Nutrition Sector partners trained 112 community health workers (CHW) and health workers on the “Mother MUAC” approach to screen, detect and refer acutely malnourished children for treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The health workers and community health workers provided training to 218,420 caregivers in vulnerable households on how to measure Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) to screen for malnutrition, as well as providing MUAC measuring tapes to the households.

In June 2020, Nutrition Sector partners admitted 23,857 severely malnourished children into the treatment programs including 22,351 in the outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTP) and 1,506 severely malnourished children with medical complications into the stabilization centres (SCs) and 272 children under six months with acute malnutrition and breastfeeding problems for medical care and relactation in the SCs. Over 90 per cent of all children in the OTPs and SCs have been discharged as cured. The total number of severely malnourished admitted in June is approximately 35 per cent higher than Sector estimations based on seasonal trends.

To prevent and treat moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), Sector partners reached 116,535 children between six and 23 months and 59,894 pregnant and breastfeeding women from food insecure households through the blanket supplementary feeding programme (BSFP). In addition, 4,071 children between 24 and 59 months with MAM were also included in the BSFP. The number of children reached through the BSFP slightly reduced as the number of screenings carried out by community health workers declined due to challenges in delivering supplies as a result of roads inaccessibility during the rainy season in remote field locations such as Ngala LGA.

Partners reached 4,131 children ages six to 59 months with MAM through the facility-based targeted supplementary feeding programme (TSFP) in selected communities in Jere and Kaga LGAs in Borno State and 10 LGAs in Yobe State. The number of children admitted into the TSFP programme in June slightly increased due to the opening of three additional health facilities in Geidam, Jakusko and Gujba LGAs in Yobe State.

To prevent micronutrient deficiencies among children from six to 23 months, Sector partners reached 24,878 children with micronutrient supplementation powders (MNP) accompanied by nutrition and health education. The number of children reached with micronutrient supplementation continues to increase as community health workers become more involved in distributions while partners integrate MNPs into all other nutrition programmes.

To promote the prevention of malnutrition, Nutrition Sector partners provided infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling to 54,969 caregivers of children zero to 23 months and 12,107 pregnant women at health facilities. The number of IYCF counselling sessions conducted significantly increased compared to May 2020 as the caregivers and pregnant women are attending health facilities after improved messaging on COVID-19 Intervention, Prevention and Control (IPC) and appropriate health seeking behaviours.

The IYCF promotion through care Support groups reached 174,335 mothers and fathers, while partners put adequate COVID-19 IPC measures in place to safely implement the group activities.

Gaps

The main challenge facing the Nutrition Sector during the lean season includes inadequate number of MUAC measuring tapes to scale-up the Mother MUAC approach which is a key nutrition programmatic adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic, low capacity in stabilization centres especially in Yobe and Adamawa states and insufficient resources to treat all MAM cases, especially those in host communities.

The Nutrition Sector is planning to scale-up the Mother MUAC in hard-to-reach areas, establish new stabilization centres and expand existing ones in Yobe State, and promote the treatment of MAM using locally available foods targeting host communities.

The Nutrition Sector also lacks adequate resources to provide all the nutrition service providers with Personal Protective Equipment and disinfectants, for them to implement proper COVID-19 IPC measures at all sites and times. The Nutrition Sector will continue to lobby the Government and donors to allocate additional resources to locally procure or promote the local manufacture of PPEs to ensure improved access to health workers including CHWs especially in hard-to-reach, remote areas.

Nutrition Sector partners have observed an increase in mortality rates, due to delays in caregivers bringing their children to health facilities for treatments. Partners have noticed a trend in caregivers first seeking treatment with local herbalists and are therefore bringing children with acute malnutrition to health facilities when they have already developed advanced medical complications The nutrition sector is developing messages to discourage the use of herbal concoctions and encourage caregivers to seek appropriate treatment immediately.

During the current rainy season, the Nutrition Sector plans to integrate key WASH and health messages to prevent diarrhoea and malaria, which are also a major cause of acute malnutrition.

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Sector Status

Camp Coordination and Camp Management

1.2M
People targeted for CCCM support
$26.5M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The months of May and June witnessed the movements of 14,626 persons (10,005 arrivals and 4,621 departures) across locations in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states. Arrivals were recorded across locations in the most-affected state of Borno but also in several LGAs in Adamawa State. Emergency Tracking Tool (ETT) assessments have identified conflicts/attack, voluntary relocation, poor living condition, improved security and fear of attacks as major movement triggers during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, some 3,965 shelters and 36 latrines were damaged by heavy downpours and windstorm, affecting 9,061 IDPs across 65 camps in the BAY states.

Response

Preventive measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 remain the priority for the Sector, particularly focusing on the highly congested camps. This will also reduce the impact of natural or man-made disasters such as fire outbreaks and flooding.

CCCM partners continue to implement the Risk Communication and Community Mobilization (RCCM) strategy to complement regular camp management awareness activities through community engagement sessions in small groups of less than 20, or at household levels to further equip and educate affected populations on COVID-19 preventive measures. Sensitization sessions continue to be guided by WHO and NCDC guidelines on hand washing, maintenance of physical distance and wearing of face mask. CCCM partners are also working in collaboration with health partners and other stakeholders to address issues around surveillance and border monitoring. The porous nature of IDP camps, especially informal sites with no perimeter walls or demarcated entry and exit points, remains a major challenge for effective implementation of COVID-19 prevention measures.

To cushion the destructive impacts of heavy rains and windstorms experienced across BAY states in recent months, the Sector has developed a flood response strategy, including a contingency plan and projected analysis on flooding and effects. The Sector has also established a response tracking and reporting mechanism which will incorporate sector and partners’ interventions to be released on a bi-weekly basis.

Sector partners alongside the Government counterpart (NEMA/SEMA) also continued scaling up coordination and implementation of the Standard Operating procedures (SOP) on refugee-returnees in border LGAs of Mobbar (Damasak), Ngala, Bama and Dikwa in Borno State. In addition, mainstreaming of protection and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention as well as other cross-cutting issues into sector activities is also a priority. The Sector is therefore working closely with Protection Sector partners and local authorities to ensure proper community mobilization and sensitization, and implementation of complaints and feedback mechanisms.

Amid challenges of camp congestion, eviction notifications were received in Dikwa LGA in a self-settled informal camp (Alhaji Bashir Camp), originally a concrete block making facility. In response, Sector partners supported the voluntary relocation of some 89HHs (309 individuals) affected by the eviction notice to several camo reception centers as a remedial measure pending land allocation for additional shelters.

Gaps

The Sector will continue to scale up advocacy on access to land and foster the implementation of the state government-approved decongestion strategy by mobilizing key stakeholders at LGA level to form decongestion committees to spearhead the process. The Sector and partners will embark on rigorous community mobilization and sensitization on the process to gauge perceptions, understand the concerns, fears and expectations of populations, to promote ownership and acceptance with close coordination and guidance from LGA authorities.

Plans to improve on CCCM delivery will continue to be prioritized including through continuous monitoring of activities to ensure partners scale up camp management activities to meet a required threshold that meet the needs of the affected populations.

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Sector Status

Shelter and Non-Food Items

1.0M
People targeted for shelter/NFI support
$76.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The establishment of Quarantine facilities in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states has increasingly become an urgent priority aimed at containing the spread of COVID-19 in IDP camps, camp-like settings and in host communities. These facilities will be holding areas for IDPs with travel history between states and across the border in places such as Banki, Ngala, Mobbar (Damasak) and nearby LGAs in Borno Sate that receive IDPs and returnees from Cameroon, Niger, and Chad. Plans to decongest overcrowded camps, unplanned camps, or informal sites with poor living conditions and with space of less than 17m2 per person is a priority for the Sector and lands have to be secured and approved by the government. So far, approximately 25,472 shelters need to be constructed to support 140,096 IDPs in 49 campsites across 7 LGAs of Borno State. Humanitarian needs remain high and concerning as 19,780 households lack shelter, while another 78,562 households are in dire need of NFI assistance across locations. There is an urgent need to construct more shelters to accommodate 24,596 IDPs who are sleeping outside or sharing spaces, and over 21,000 living in reception centres. Non-Food Items (NFIs) are urgently needed given the increasing multiple displacements prompted by the deteriorating security environment and other socioeconomic factors. Additionally, the onset of the rainy season has left 19,781 shelters damaged or destroyed, directly affecting some 69,690 IDPs. Sporadic fire incidents destroyed some 39,106 shelters across camps in Muna Garage, Ngala, Mafa and Monguno areas of Borno State. Main challenges include lack of shelter construction materials and Tarpaulin due to supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Response

Sector discussions and activities prioritized the construction of quarantine facilities across Borno and Adamawa states. So far there are two quarantine facilities in Maiduguri and Pulka, Borno State, with a total capacity of 140 bed spaces. Construction of more quarantine facilities are ongoing in other LGAs across Borno state. To ensure preparedness and response to effects of the rainy season reinforcement and upgrade of identified worn-out makeshift shelters and construction of new shelters was carried out, as well as prepositioning of shelter and NFI materials across locations. The camps decongestion strategy was discussed with Borno State Government and immediate implementation plans were proposed. The state government also gave directives on the construction of transitional shelters Maiduguri, Jere and Konduga LGAs; immediate expansion of security perimeters in Monguno, Bama, Pulka and Dikwa, and the utilization of the Gubio land.

In support of the decongestion strategy, UNHCR and the Ministry of Rehabilitation Reconstruction and Resettlement (MRRR) have constructed 500 shelters in Banki, Bama LGA, and the same will be replicated in Ngala LGA. The additional space approved by the state government for the decongestion exercise in Banki could accommodate some 4,000 shelters. The perimeter extension in Dikwa was completed by NERI and approval for use of land is underway for the decongestion of the four congested campsites. Some 5,450 individuals benefitted from emergency shelter kits distribution, shelter construction or rehabilitation. A total 1,580 individuals also received 316 NFI kits during the reporting period. Adequate structures are being identified and assessed to be refurbished and used in case of a mass influx of IDPs in various locations in Borno State.

Gaps

The sector will continue to advocate for more land to facilitate the decongestion of overcrowded camps across Borno State. Sector partners will continue prepositioning shelter and NFIs materials for partners’ immediate response during an emergency. Access however remains a major challenge in parts of Borno state as well as partners’ capacity and funding constraints. About 19,780 households, including IDPs and returnees, are still in need of shelter and NFI support, including of emergency shelter and essential household items. The effects of heavy winds and rainstorms are far reaching, and the Sector is facing shortages of critical supplies and experiencing logistics challenges that hamper timely and immediate intervention. Additionally, Sector partners have also experienced supply chain disruptions triggered by COVID-19 pandemic.

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Sector Status

Protection (General)

$25.1M
Funding required (USD)
2.5M
People targeted for protection assistance

Needs

With constant cross-border movements resulting in people who were refugees in neighbouring countries returning into Nigerian territory and persistent attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) on civilian and IDP locations, the protection environment has become more volatile and concerning. The socio-economic impact of the protracted crisis on IDPs is getting more severe and becoming a factor for population displacement. COVID-19 emergency measures, including restriction of movement, exacerbate the vulnerability of the affected populations, making access to services more challenging. With access to livelihoods severely impacted, breadwinners are mostly unable to provide for their families, disrupting family configurations. There are reports of petty thefts across camps, further exerting pressure on IDPs who have limited access to resources and income-generating activities. Following the closure of official border entry points, there are allegations of officials extorting people living in border areas including Damasak, Ngala and Banki who need access to markets on both sides. The consistent population movement especially into camps - where humanitarian aid and resources are already stretched - also comes with protection risks and vulnerabilities such as those arising from congestion and lack of resources. The lockdown also disrupted documentation services.

Response

During the reporting period, community volunteers were engaged in disseminating risk communication messages and raise awareness on the risks of COVID-19 pandemic and the precautions and mitigation measures to be adopted. This was enhanced with protection mainstreaming of preventive and response measures. The Sector developed an advocacy note on regulating the excessive use of authority while enforcing lockdown measures on populations. The Sector also engaged in developing a guidance note on protection concerns in COVID-19 isolation centres and supported the CCCM Sector in developing the camps decongestion strategy. General Protection partners deployed additional personnel to the border areas of Borno State to support and facilitate the process of refugee returns as well as support in the isolation of those coming into the territory and subsequent entry into camps. Protection desks were equipped with IEC material on COVID-19, and innovations were made in adapting messages and services to virtual service provision and door-to-door dissemination of key messages. Protection monitoring also continued during the reporting period.

In line with its responsibility to build capacity for preparedness and response, the Protection Sector organized a series of Virtual Learning sessions to support the development of partners’ capacities in recognizing, understanding and responding to protection issues. Sessions on various protection related issues included Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE), Trafficking in Persons, Accountability to Affected Populations and Protection Monitoring, Housing, Land and Property, integrating GBV in humanitarian action, legal frameworks for protection of IDPs, durable solutions and Information Counselling and Legal Assistance (ICLA). The summary report on the Virtual Learning sessions can be read here.

Gaps

Persistent attacks by NSAGs have triggered panic and safety concerns among civilian populations across camps and communities in Borno State. Fresh and multiple displacements are expected to persist on account of worsening insecurity in recent weeks, leading to an influx of new arrivals to already congested camps.

The dire socio-economic conditions of the affected populations require enhanced and coordinated response especially from Government. The lack of civil authorities in the LGAs outside Maiduguri, Borno capital, continues to hinder access to services especially related to documentation. The Sector will continue to engage with Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) for awareness of protection challenges in NE Nigeria and also continue efforts and coordination with other sectors to mitigate resort to negative coping mechanisms by affected population due to ongoing restrictive measures enforced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Sector is also in the process of harmonizing protection monitoring tools which, when completed, will enable an integrated protection monitoring and analysis which will inform interventions.

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Sector Status

Gender-Based Violence Sub-Sector

1.3M
People targeted for GBV assistance
$35.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The COVID-19 pandemic is heightening already existing vulnerabilities for gender-based violence, reducing survivors access to report, seek help or receive quality response services. In some situations, there has been an increase in the incidents of GBV; however, in north-east Nigeria, restrictions and lockdown measures have presented barriers for survivors who are seeking help and service provision.

Organizations providing GBV services have had to adapt and apply flexible approaches, in order to continue providing service for survivors and people in need. The GBV Sub-Sector has engaged in the development of COVID-19 response strategies, collaborating with the COVID-19 Task Force and supporting partners to maintain service provision.

Response

The GBV Sub-Sector (GBVSS) developed technical and strategic guidance notes and strategies, as well as compiled and shared relevant resources for partners to support response actions in the COVID-19 context. The resources are on GBV case management, the GBV information management system (GBVIMS), safe space management, PSEA, and other relevant resources. Staff have received appropriate training on adapting new guidelines and guidance notes to service provision.

The GBVSS facilitated the transition to remote service provision in the context of COVID-19. Partners established confidential spaces including service provision hubs to provide remote services through telephone helplines throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Maiduguri, Pulka and Monguno (Borno State). This enhanced access to GBV case management and psychosocial support services for survivors and other vulnerable individuals.

Facilities and service delivery points for GBV services, such as women and girl’s friendly spaces, integrated/women empowerment facilities, and one stop centres, have set up hand washing facilities and put hygiene measures in place to ensure staff and beneficiaries adhere to public health standards. Partners also set up designated areas (temporary confinement spaces or rooms) with dignity for beneficiaries showing signs or symptoms of COVID-19 while health teams are contacted. Partners also procured and provided COVID-19 prevention items and supplies to protection desks and women and girls friendly spaces. Moreover, GBV response teams in referral centres are following Infection, Prevention and Control procedures.

The GBVSS conducted mapping of critical GBV response stakeholders and updated GBV referral pathways. To support GBV response teams to respond appropriately, they were provided with personal protection supplies such as face masks, hand sanitizers, gloves, and other protective gear to meet the logistical needs of GBV survivors. GBV/PSEA messages were developed focusing on reporting channels, GBV service availability and referral pathways. The GBVSS also started the process of scaling up the rollout of Primero/GBVIMS+ to document case management practices during lockdowns with limited engagement. Given that remote service provision has risks associated with guaranteeing safety and confidentiality, GBVIMS+/Primero facilitates ethical and confidential incident data management and security.

The GBV Sub-Sector conducted a test run of Smart RR - a mobile application which enables survivors, social workers and service providers to report and refer GBV incidents to relevant service providers and authorities, conducts service mapping, automatically updates the referral directory, and collects and analyses referral data. The application is an innovation of a local NGO partner, built on the referral mechanism of the GBV Sub-Sector to mitigate existing challenges such as under-reporting and difficulties associated with accessing services.

Gaps

The reduced presence of humanitarian personnel, especially in some of the deep field locations, has strained available services and limited access to GBV service provision. Meanwhile, frontline staff and response teams lack access to adequate basic personal supplies to enable them to respond appropriately to the identified needs.

Community-based GBV prevention activities have also been limited due to physical distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. These are avenues through which communities are engaged on GBV awareness and avenues for seeking help for survivors.

Moreover, families directly affected by COVID-19 face serious stigma from community members especially when a family has been confirmed to be positive or is suspected. Additional efforts, including raising awareness to counter stigmatization, need to be undertaken to ensure the protection of people affected by COVID-19.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Child Protection Sub-Sector

1.8M
People targeted for child protection
$27.3M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

Given the need for a multi-sectoral approach in preventing the spread of COVID-19 and mitigating and addressing the effects of the pandemic on the well-being of children, the reporting period highlighted the need for enhanced cooperation between the Child Protection Sector and other sectors in the COVID-19 response. This was not only limited to increased understanding by actors in other sectors of child protection risks and how can they can be mitigated, but also clear and concerted efforts to address the protection needs of children. The need to understand the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related control measures on the well-being of children and child protection service delivery in north-east Nigeria was identified.

Response

The Child Protection Sub-Sector (CPSS) conducted a survey in early June 2020 to understand the perceptions of child protection actors related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children, the capacities of families to care and provide for children, and the effects of pandemic-related prevention and restrictions measures on child protection services in north-east Nigeria. The survey covered the period of March to May 2020 and was limited to the perceptions of child protection actors; given the COVID-19 context, it was not feasible to collect information directly from the children and community members.

The report of the survey is available here. The survey provides recommendations for implementation by State Governments in north-east Nigeria, child protection actors and actors in other sectors, among others, to improve the well-being of children and enhance access to and quality of child protection services within the context of the pandemic.

The CPSS facilitated the training of 37 health workers (15 female and 22 male) in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states on child protection; the training was aimed at understanding what child protection means, the linkages to health and to know and understand how these risks can be prevented and/or mitigated through mainstreaming child protection into health programming particularly within the COVID-19 context.

The CPSS held webinars with the Education and Nutrition Sectors on the integration of child protection into education and nutrition programming. The webinar with nutrition actors focused on the linkages between child protection and nutrition with practical examples of integrated nutrition/child protection programming. The education webinar focused on the COVID-19 response and integration of child protection into the education response which resulted in representatives from the CPSS being added to the Education Sector Technical Working Group on COVID-19 to provide technical guidance on child protection integration.

Gaps

Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevailing access and security concerns in north-east Nigeria, child protection actors highlighted the need for support for the well-being of staff not only on self-care but on organizational responsibilities and resources to help staff cope with stress and burnout. The CPSS coordination team was tasked to work on supporting child protection actors on this, building on global guidance on the safety and well-being of the social workforce during the COVID-19 response.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Mine Action Sub-Sector

0.6M
People targeted for mine action
$7.9M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

In May and June, a series of attacks and an increase in preventable incidents involving unexploded ordnances (UXOs) demonstrated the urgent need for increased mine action efforts in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states.

After an attack by non-state armed groups in Monguno LGA (Borno State) on 13 June that hit the humanitarian hub, UNMAS conducted an assessment following reports that an unexploded projectile landed in front of the facility where aid workers have accommodation and offices. This assessment also led to the discovery of another unexploded ordnance in one of the town’s most populated areas. Additionally, assessment missions in Gwoza, Ngala and Mobbar (Damasak) LGAs of Borno State further underscored the severity of the threat posed by UXOs. These developments indicate that civilians and aid workers are increasingly at risk of becoming victims of explosive incidents, and that humanitarians are in need of training to effectively, efficiently and safely prevent the associated risks.

Furthermore, May and June witnessed an increase in preventable incidents killing and injuring civilians such as: an unexploded ordnance being picked up on farmland; a child sorting out scrap metal; a herdsman triggering an explosive device while grazing his cattle; and a few incidents where people were clearing the environment or a field within the community to prepare for resettlement. This increased trend shows how crucial mine action is to prevent explosive incidents and save lives in the BAY states, including through non-technical surveys, explosive ordnance risk education and victim assistance.

Response

Following assessment missions, UNMAS launched the “Humanitarian Hub Campaign” to sensitize and train aid workers in the deep field on how to prevent UXO incidents and safely remove explosive remnants. In May and June, 77 humanitarian personnel across humanitarian hubs in Ngala, Banki, Monguno, Bama and Gwoza LGAs of Borno State received training on managing incidents involving explosive remnants of war. In response to the UXO that was found in Monguno town, UNMAS coordinated between local communities, the police and the military to ensure its prompt clearance. The Danish Demining Group swiftly followed up with some of the victims and survivors of recent explosive incidents and implemented emergency EORE in Ngala LGA (Borno State) and Buni Yadi (Yobe State). In May, Mine Action Partners reached a total of 11,375 people (2,756 girls; 3,514 boys; 2,503 women; and 2,602 men) with explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) through 724 sessions conducted for IDPs, members of host communities, residents, and returnees in 13 LGAs across the BAY states. In June, Mine Action partners reached a total of 42,029 people (10,672 girls; 12,175 boys; 11,035 women; and 8,147 men) with EORE through 3,721 sessions delivered to IDPs, host community, residents and returnees in 15 LGAs across Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states.

Gaps

Underfunding for the Mine Action Sub-Sector remains a major gap in implementing crucial life-saving activities amid an increase in armed attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) leaving explosive remnants of war scattered in areas where both civilians and aid workers carry out daily activities

Community leaders in deep field locations have expressed concerns that the risks of explosive incidents will be heightened as communities start venturing out onto farmlands to harvest their crops. Therefore, community leaders requested for a training of trainers on EORE, as well as more long-term and inclusive support for victims and survivors of explosive incidents. The “Humanitarian Hubs Campaign” will continue in Dikwa and Damasak (Borno State) at a later stage, as part of efforts to prepare and educate aid workers on how to safely identify and react to UXO incidents.

To mitigate these threats and to better assist victims and survivors, more support for the sub-sector’s risk prevention, assessment and clearance operations is essential.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Housing, Land and Property Sub-Sector

$0.4M
Funding required (USD)
0.9M
People targeted for HLP assistance

Needs

In August, the Housing Land and Property (HLP) sub-sector received requests to respond to eviction cases involving IDPs living in rented accommodations within host communities, particularly in Borno State. This was attributed to the inability to pay rental charges and the influx of IDPs to host communities and settlements, incurring charges from landowners, as many official camps are already congested and stretched beyond capacity.

Response

To raise awareness on HLP rights, the sub-sector organized trainings and activities in August including a two-day training for 25 IDP women groups from various camps across Borno State, in collaboration with the Borno State Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development. The training aimed to increase women’s understanding of HLP rights and how to exercise these rights.

A three-day training for ACTED Camp Coordination and Camp Management/Shelter staff aimed to strengthen mainstream HLP rights, to ensure the sustainability of interventions with an emphasis on services provided in informal camps.

In Adamawa State, the sub-sector in collaboration with the state branch of the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) organized a one-day HLP/Access to Justice workshop on resolving HLP disputes for IDPs and returnees and the role of the NBA and legal practitioners in general. Key recommendations include, the need to: intensify advocacy on IDPs and returnees’ rights to HLP restitution; raise awareness on the Kampala Convention; collaborate with the International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA) and other CSOs to step up awareness on HLP needs of IDPs and returnees; and for the NBA to engage with Ministry of Justice to develop priorities and guide justice sector reforms related to IDPs.

The sub-sector also held an interactive session with land officers in Adamawa State to address the lack of documentation/record of rights/titles for housing and lands which were not necessarily needed before the crisis, but have now become important evidence of property ownership, particularly for IDPs returning from displacement locations. Norwegian Refugee Council's Information Counselling and Legal Assistance (ICLA) unit provided HLP legal assistance services to 575 IDP returnees on the recovery or replacement of lost documentation in Damboa and Gwoza LGAs of Borno State.

The sub-sector is reviewing eviction guidance tools to effectively mitigate and manage eviction issues. The sub-sector participated in the HLP Evictions & Relocations Interest Group meeting on the 20 August, which explored measures to protect the rights of tenants/occupants and ensure they are clearly informed of their eviction, and are given a “reasonable notice” of departure to enable them to find alternative housing solutions. For ‘informal’ evictions and departures, negotiation for reasonable notice by landlords/landowners – with period of reasonable notice to be determined by the tenant and ideally be around 15 days to one month – was proposed.

In Madinatu camp, Jere LGA of Borno State, some 11 households were evicted from the land they had been occupying for over two years by the land owner on the premise of wanting to put the land to personal use. The HLP sub-sector was able to facilitate access to alternative land for the affected IDPs. Sub-sector partners provided the IDPs with NFIs and building kits for the construction of shelters.

Gaps

The sub-sector continues to identify eviction cases through field visits and referrals from community leaders, sector partners and NNGOs/CBOs for HLP legal assistance due to inability of IDPs to pay rent. Most of the eviction cases are from Borno and Adamawa states, and are largely attributed to the lack of livelihoods to generate income for rent, and the economic hardship exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. With limited donors funding “cash-for-rent” interventions, the existing gaps remain huge, leaving many IDPs at risk of forced evictions.

The sub-sector will continue monitoring informal IDP sites to mitigate and prevent evictions, while also responding to cases of threats of eviction and actual eviction through engagements with traditional/community and government stakeholders.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Education

$54.5M
Funding required (USD)
3.1M
People targeted for education assistance

Needs

Due to school closure across the country as part of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 pandemic, more than 4 million children across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY) states have been without access to education since the beginning of April. There is need to develop alternative ways and methods of learning to enable children access education and other services that were provided via schools or temporary learning centers (TLCs). Assessing the best alternative tools and platforms (radio, TV, Internet) to reach more children, especially in the hard-to-reach areas and IDP camps will be essential.

During this period of school closure, aid actors need to step up awareness and advocacy on the protection of schools against their use or conversion to isolation centers, decongestion option for IDP camps, healthcare center, markets or for other purposes outside of education.

Clear guidelines on school reopening during and after this pandemic are critical to ensure the safety of pupils. Many parents have expressed concerns about school closure. At the moment, there is no explanation on when and under which conditions schools will re-open.

Response

The Education in Emergency Working Group (EiEWG), through ROHI, engaged stakeholders from different sectors including the Ministry of Education, the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB), the Local Education Authority, and Local Government Authority officials and School Based Management Committees (SBMCs) from Adamawa and Borno States through sensitization on the Safe Schools Common Approach, exploring the different risk areas and soliciting for a collective approach towards ensuring that schools are safe.

Some 56 people from Adamawa (five women and 22 men) and Borno (five women and 34 men) participated in the workshop. In Dikwa LGA of Borno State, the decision to convert one of the largest schools (Shehu Sanda) to a COVID-19 isolation facility was rescinded by the Primary Health Care (PHC) coordinator after attending the workshop ensuring that pupils will be able to use the facility for learning once schools re-open across the country.

National guidelines for safe school reopening have been developed to review and measure the readiness and preparedness of the education sector of the country. This is an achievement in terms of getting the country to agree on a policy document to guide the process for re-opening schools at national and sub-national levels. It is also a strategic document for partners and donors to support the safe re-opening process. The Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) and EiEWG will utilize the document to support the training of various stakeholders on their roles in ensuring a safe and protective learning environment post-COVID-19 pandemic.

The sector has worked with SUBEB and Ministry of Education to identify TV, radio stations and set up a calendar for remote lessons and classes. In the BAY states, lessons through radio have started and a survey is being conducted to identify how many children are being reached.

UNICEF and ROHI sensitized 45,036 individuals in 12 LGAs across the BAY states on COVID-19 pandemic and impacts, alternative learning methods, improved personal hygiene and safe return to school. People reached include 30,982 children (19,473 girls, 13,507 boys) and 12,056 adults (3,378 females, 8,678 males) including teachers, parents, school administrators and SBMC members.

Education Sector partners completed 31 handwashing stations in schools and learning centers in Gwoza, Hawul, Jere, Konduga, Magumeri, MMC, Mobbar and Monguno LGAs in Borno.

Gaps

It is still very difficult to reach many children through radio and TV programmes following the closure of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Sector needs funding to develop alternative program and strategies. Radio stations’ broadcast coverage is very weak and poor. Solar-powered radios and pre-recorded lessons need to be distributed to reach more children and scale-up the response.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Emergency Telecommunications

$3.0M
Funding required for ETS services (USD)
100
Organizations targeted

Needs

The COVID-19-related restrictions on the movement of humanitarians have required ETS staff to work from home to curb the spread of the virus in north-east Nigeria. During the reporting period, most ETS staff worked remotely, while one staff occasionally worked in the office at the Red Roof humanitarian hub in Maiduguri. To support remote working arrangements, as well as the immediate health response to the corona virus and the ongoing humanitarian response, Internet connectivity and security communications were essential for humanitarian partners to continue delivering services amid COVID-19. 

Response

Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the ETS team continues to provide vital communications services – Internet connectivity in eight humanitarian hubs and security communications in ten operational areas – to the humanitarian community across north-east Nigeria. Since January 2020, the ETS has provided Internet connectivity services to more than 3,702 users from 107 organizations (15 United Nations agencies and 92 non-governmental organizations).

During the reporting period, the ETS programmed 68 radios to enable humanitarians to improve communication between staff and to ensure their safety and security in the region. The ETS helpdesk received and resolved 207 ICT-related issues reported by its users through email and phone. The team also conducted capacity building activities by delivering four webinar sessions on security communications and ETS IT Policy user awareness for 29 humanitarians from various organizations in Maiduguri and across field locations.

In August, Marlink field engineers, in coordination with ETS, completed the Internet Service Provider (ISP) migration exercise in Maiduguri. The team also received migration equipment to conduct the same activity across Borno State, namely in Bama, Banki, Ngala, Damasak, Monguno and Gwoza.

Gaps

The ETS has had to postpone its activities, including field missions and physical training sessions, due to COVID-19-related restrictions. The pandemic has also delayed staff recruitment and deployment to the field. The restrictions on field travel will indirectly impact the set Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of this year’s ETS activities. The activities affected include the installation of the hybrid solar-based power system, technical capacity building activities and routine maintenance.

One of the delayed projects, the installation of the much-anticipated hybrid solar-based power system, aims to provide a more sustainable power supply for humanitarians who currently rely on fossil fuel generators to access ETS services. The team will commence the installation of the hybrid solar-based power system in its operational areas in October as soon as the COVID-19 travel restrictions have been eased and engineers can be deployed to the deep filed locations.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

WASH

$104.1M
Funding required (USD)
2.5M
People targeted for WASH assistance

Needs

The outbreak of COVID-19 in Nigeria and its spread to Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states in the north-east increased pressure on the limited capacity to deliver enough water across many IDP camps, as well as essential supplies like soap and hand washing stations. These items have become scarce, resulting in price inflation due to demand. Partners will focus on intensive hygiene promotion to prevent COVID-19, including raising awareness of proper hand washing techniques with soap. Increasing access to enough water remains a high priority to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

Response

The WASH Sector developed guidelines, strategy and hygiene promotion protocols for the COVID-19 preparedness and response.  These have been discussed during partner meetings, shared widely with partners and made available on the sector website-for reference. Physical distancing, hand washing stations at strategic locations within camps, door-to-door campaigns as opposed to mass gatherings and improvised distribution techniques are being implemented with the support of CCCM and Health Sector partners.Soap and information, education and communication (IEC) materials have also been disseminated during food distributions.

The Sector, through the Public Health Emergency Operation Centre and risk communications group has supported the development and distribution of IEC materials for COVID-19. Bulk production of posters, fliers and pamphlets is required in order to reach a wider audience on COVID-19 risk and prevention measures. The WASH Sector support all priority IDP camps and LGAs to develop business continuity plans, highlighting the need to maintain the current level of WASH services even when movement is restricted or locked down during the COVID-19 response.

The Sector pre-positioned 3,572 WASH response kits in Adamawa, Yobe and Ngala (Borno State) warehouses for rapid response by WASH Sector partners in case of a disease outbreak, like cholera or COVID-19) or new population displacements.

The Sector supported the Global Cholera Joint Operational Framework development by sharing insights from the Nigeria Emergency Response and lessons learned. In April, the WASH Sector reviewed the cholera preparedness and response plan together with the Health Sector. Partners are also working with Health, Food and CCCM sector partners to identify and construct temporary quarantine centres in seven LGAs in Borno State. COVID-19 specific achievements include but are not limited to: 833 handwashing stations set up in public and strategic areas around camps in Gwoza, Bama, MMC, Jere, Ngala and Dikwa in Borno State. The same locations have received about 28,000 hygiene kits, including soap for hand washing. Online reporting dashboard can be found here.  

Gaps

Water trucking remains an expensive option to increase water access to populations where coverage is low, while ground water potential is a challenge or new influx occurred/new covid19 cases identified. Long term design plans and investment is required to upgrade systems and reticulate water for maximum productivity.

The WASH Sector common pipeline stock is running low on crucial supplies, especially soap and chlorine due to increased demand for COVID-19 and cholera prevention and response. About 200,000 pieces of soap, 200 drums of chlorine and about 800 additional handwashing facilities are required, so additional funding is necessary to cover the gaps. For camps that have been established for over four years, this ratio of persons per latrine should be brought down to 20. Lack of enough land to construct sanitation facilities, specifically gender-segregated latrines, remains a major challenge to improving sanitation and hygiene services in camps and camp-like settings.

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Situation Report

Sector Status

Early Recovery

1.6M
People targeted for early recovery
$112.7M
Funding required (USD)

Needs

The economic crisis as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting communities and local economies in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states. Lockdown measures and movement restrictions have disrupted livelihood opportunities. Reduction of basic services and livelihoods are exacerbating the vulnerabilities of affected people such as increased unemployment and loss of remittances. Daily laborers and people engaging in cash-for-work activities are the most affected due to restricted labour migration and closure of small businesses. Youth and women in the informal sector are also hard hit. Supply shortages as a result of movement restrictions are also reducing economic opportunities and decreasing rural and urban incomes thereby affecting people’s ability to buy basic commodities. This economic downturn is making it more difficult to lay the foundations for sustainable recovery and a return to longer term development in the north-east.

Response

In March and April, Early Recovery partners continued to rehabilitate or construct market stalls and classroom blocks in Adamawa State. Partners rehabilitated six market stalls in Madagali LGA and built two new ones in Michika LGA. In addition, five classroom blocks in Madagali LGA and four in Michika LGA were rehabilitated. Partners also started rehabilitation work on two slaughterhouses in Adamawa State. To complete the various rehabilitation and construction work, partners provided emergency employment opportunities to 74 skilled workers and 842 unskilled workers through the cash-for-work modality.

In Askira/Uba LGA of Borno State, Early Recovery partners rehabilitated four boreholes and one manual hand-pump benefiting approximately 1,500 people. In addition, partners are drilling a new borehole at the Hussara Health Centre, which will benefit 2,500 people. Construction of new incinerators at the Yimir Ali and Chul Primary Health Centres is ongoing. Furthermore, sector partners rehabilitated 22 boreholes in Geidam and Yunusari LGAs in Yobe State, to increase water supply for domestic use and agricultural production.    

In Maiduguri, Borno State, partners continued to carry out waste management activities. A total of 3,312 people (2,578 men and 734 women) were employed through cash-for-work and cleaned up waste in 23 community areas across 10 wards.

In March and April, Sector partners trained crisis-affected people on vocational and business skills to increase their livelihood opportunities in MMC, Bama, Ngala and Damasak LGAs of Borno State. A total of 390 people received training in various skills such as carpentry, tailoring, shoe-making, micro-business, pasta making, baking and extracting groundnut oil.

Around 1,050 people completed enterprise skills and apprenticeship trainings with community-based master craftsmen across eight LGAs of Borno and Adamawa states. A total of 250 youth received start-up grants of 60,000 Naira each (first tranche and second tranche) in five LGAs in Borno State. In Adamawa State, 250 people received start-up grants of 30,000 each (first tranche) across three LGAs.

In Yobe State, 100 people received small businesses and livestock apprenticeship training, while partners also raised awareness on preventing the spread of COVID-19. In Damaturu, the capital of Yobe State, vocational training such as tailoring, fashion and design, building and interlocking, and cosmetology is ongoing for 30 trainees. The trainees will also undergo a competency test, financial literacy and business development trainings, after which they will receive business start-up kits.

In Jere and MMC LGAs, Borno State, partners trained 92 youth on employability and life skills including work place preparedness, professional and personal development, and job application processes.  Partners are also currently providing technical training support to 125 youth on business and entrepreneurship skills.

Gaps

COVID-19 posed a serious challenge to implementing resilience and recovery activities across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states due to government-imposed travel restrictions. The presence of Sector partners has been limited to a few essential staff, with many staff working from home, reducing supervision and monitoring of activities.

In addition, the security situation continued to be fragile. Incidents of attacks by non-state armed groups were reported in Nanam, the headquarters of Yunusari LGA in Yobe State. Threats of a looming attack in Yunusari and Geidam LGAs (Yobe State) also led to a two-day suspension of activities there.

The Early Recovery Sector will continue providing technical support to partners to implement recovery and resilience activities throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Sector partners will apply preparedness and response plans to deliver messaging and raise awareness of the coronavirus pandemic to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. These measures will help efforts to continue non-COVID-19 interventions such as cash-for-work; unconditional cash distributions; support for the establishment of small businesses; vocational and business management trainings; livelihood support and economic recovery; and rehabilitating basic infrastructure. These activities will also contribute to curbing the spread of the virus, especially by ensuring the provision of enough water, soap and other critical WASH infrastructure.

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Situation Report
Feature
Halima at water collection point – Shuwari-6, el-Miskin Transit Camp Maiduguri, Borno

Water for Life: A borehole restores dignity and reignites a community’s dreams

“Water in our community is now clean and tastes good. There is enough water go around for everyone in our community. Now we are happy and comfortable. We can once again have hope to build our futures. We are lucky” Halima Mohammed, a 26-year-old woman from Jinaina village of Gamboru Ngala of Borno Statei, Nigeria benefited from water and sanitation interventions implemented by CIDAR with support from the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund after fleeing her village to an IDP Camp in Maiduguri.

Here is her story on how access to water changed her life.

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Situation Report
Feature

Cash Working Group Annual Report

In the north-eastern Nigerian states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe (BAY), where 10.6 million people are currently in need of life-saving humanitarian aid, violent attacks and insecurity in some areas have made it difficult for humanitarian actors to reach some of the most vulnerable people. Finding efficient and effective means of delivering assistance is essential. Since 2016, humanitarian actors have increasingly been providing support through cash-based assistance to ensure that essential needs are met, while providing an avenue for the most vulnerable to become self-reliant and participate in economic activities that boost local markets.

More than one-third of all humanitarian assistance in 2019 in the BAY states was through cash and voucher assistance, reaching more than 1.5 million people throughout the year. In 2016, only nine per cent of humanitarian aid was provid-ed through cash and voucher assistance (CVA). This demonstrates the increasing use of CVA, based on not only its cost effectiveness but its effectivity in building bridges towards recovery from the crisis.

In May, the Nigeria Cash Working Group issued its first-ever annual report which provides an overview and analysis of the impact that cash programming and activities have had in the humanitarian response in north-east Nigeria. Read the full report here.

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Situation Report
Feature
SAMSON TIMOTHY, GREENCODE PROJECT OFFICER (LEFT) WITH ABU MOHAMMED (RIGHT)

Watering Seeds of Healing and Hope

“The care and concern that GREENCODE gave me, helped me overcome suffering and helped me in the most practical way: helping me access clean water for drinking and bathing,”-Abu Mohammed, internally displaced from Baga town, Kukawa Local Government Area to Maiduguri, the Borno State capital.

Read full story here.

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Nigeria

Situation Report
Analysis

Nigeria: Access constraints drive up humanitarian needs

In Borno State, most roads leading in and out of Maiduguri, the state capital, are insecure for civilians and aid workers. Across the three states, some 1.2 million people are out of reach for humanitarian organizations and deprived of much-needed assistance and civil authority services. Humanitarian organizations have faced increased access constraints and security-related incidents that hamper more effective humanitarian response in the three states. With the upsurge in attacks over the past year, and specifically in recent months, aid organizations were forced to scale down activities and temporarily withdraw their staff in some areas.

Read the full article here.

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Nigeria

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Ngala Nigeria Fire Outbreak

Nigeria: At least 14 killed and 8,000 affected in Ngala camp fire

At least 14 people were killed and 15 others wounded in a major fire outbreak that ravaged the International School (ISS) IDP camp in Ngala LGA on 16 April.

The fire reportedly started around 10.00 a.m. from a cooking point, spreading and destroying over 300 shelters and one communal shelter before it was put out. More than 8,000 IDPs were directly affected with homes, property and valuables lost to the inferno. The wounded IDPs are receiving treatment at the camp clinic run by partners.

Aid workers and government authorities started a rapid assessment of the impacts and are currently mobilizing support, particularly shelters, food and NFIs for the affected people. ISS camp, which hosts over 40,000 IDPs is one of two major camps and several host communities in Ngala LGA which shares a border with Cameroon and continues to receive influx of new arrivals from neighbouring LGAs (such as Kala Balge), as well as refugees crossing back from Cameroon.

Despite the scale up of sensitization and awareness programmes on fire outbreak prevention and mitigation measures by partners, the congestion of camps, further exacerbated by the daily influx and clustering of makeshift shelters (mostly made from dry and flammable raffias), increases the risks of fire incidents.

Partners continue to advocate for the allocation of additional lands to allow for the construction of new shelters to decongest camps across the state.

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Media

Yassine Gaba, Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator in Nigeria visited Muna Garage camp for internally displaced persons on 28 May 2020 to show solidarity with thousands of vulnerable people affected by a recent fire outbreak.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Civil Military Coordination

In January and February, Illegal Vehicle Check Points (VCPs) set up by non-state armed groups and armed criminal gangs continued to pose security constraints and hamper the movement of humanitarian goods along main supply routes. Incidents were reported on roads connecting Bama-Pulka, Maiduguri – Ngamdu, Benisheikh – Wajiro, Pulka – Gwoza, Gajiram – Monguno, Maiduguri -Ngamdu, Dapchi-Damaturu and Damasak-Gubio.

During the months of January and February, organizing regular CMCoord meetings proved challenging due to insecurity. Fuel restrictions and bureaucratic bottlenecks on fuel transport continue to pose challenges and impede humanitarian operations.

In February, longstanding security issues preventing nearly 400 vacant shelters from being allocated in Monguno LGA were resolved through discussions between the military and humanitarian partners. This resolution allowed for the allocation of shelters to start on 26 February and the process is still ongoing.

Security concerns limited travel to the deep field to hold CMCoord discussions at the LCG level. Meanwhile, weekly meetings between OCHA CMCoord, Sector Leads and the CIMIC officer at the Theatre Command were regularly postponed, causing a delay in resolving key issues with the military. Monthly CMCoord meetings at Abuja level were held, however participation was low.

The movement of humanitarian cargo was hampered by additional requests for vendor, contractor, vehicle and driver details made by the military. This issue was raised and a new procedure was agreed upon and shared with the Theatre Command for approval.   

In February, the issue of insufficient fuel to operate the generators at the humanitarian hubs in Banki (Bama LGA) was resolved. The Theatre Commander agreed to increase the amount of fuel humanitarians can transport per week from 1,000 litres to 2,250 litres. This will enable the hub in Banki to operate the generators up to 24 hours a day and ensure the smooth continuation of humanitarian activities.

Despite positive developments in the movement of fuel to power the humanitarian hubs, at the time of reporting, each weekly quota has to be negotiated separately with the Theatre Commander. Amidst a deteriorating security situation and an escalation of a health care crisis, it is critical that healthcare facilities and hubs have adequate and regular supplies of fuel to save lives.

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Situation Report
Analysis

Adamawa State Humanitarian Situation Overview

Adamawa State continues to experience increased humanitarian needs driven by conflict, attacks by non-state armed groups (NSAGs), and inter-communal clashes. Insecurity continues to pervade the state with a series of armed attacks in communities around the fringes of the Sambisa forest by NSAGs. The growing insecurity continues to hamper access to vulnerable returnees in Michika, Madagali, and now some parts of Gombi Local Government Area that require much needed relief and recovery assistance.

Read the full report here.

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