Somalia

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Drought conditions in many parts of Somalia results in livestock migration and rapid increase in water prices.
  • Cases of AWD/cholera cases reported following deteriorating water stress situation.
  • National COVID-19 vaccinations continue with at least 91,087 people having received the first does of the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine across the country as of 6 April.
  • Desert locust control operations underway following siting of newly formed immature swarms in northern parts of the country.
  • • Plight of IDPs worsened by upsurge in forced evictions, lack of opportunities, harsh livelihood conditions, water shortages and inadequate health-services.
OCHA Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin - March 2021 -
OCHA Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin - March 2021 - Haafuun residence fetching water from a well 15 kilo meters way from the district, Bari region. Photo: Ayub Ahmed/OCHA

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Somalia

Situation Report

Key Figures

4.1M
# of food insecure people
1.3M
# of people in emergency and crisis
2.8M
# of people in stress
1M
# of children projected to be malnourished
2.6M
# of internally displaced persons

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Somalia

Situation Report

Funding

$1.1B
Required
$900.5M
Received
84%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Tareq Talahma

Head of office

Ayub Ahmed

Public Information Officer

Erich Ogoso

Head of Communication & Public Information Unit

Somalia

Situation Report
Emergency Response

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Pre-drought conditions worsen in many parts of Somalia

In March, large parts of the country faced severe drought conditions, triggered by below average 2020 Deyr rains and above average temperatures during the Jilal season. Over 116,000 Somalis were displaced by water shortages between October 2020 and March 2021.  According to the FAO latest drought update, the worst affected regions include Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Gedo, Mudug, Nuugal, Bari, Toghdheer and Sool which are currently experiencing severe water shortages for domestic, livestock and agricultural production purposes.

Availability of water and pasture conditions have significantly deteriorated, leading to increased livestock migration and rapid rise of water prices. In Puntland, the price of water in most rural villages has doubled since the beginning of March as the dry conditions persist in most rural villages and settlements across the state. By the end of March, a 200-litre barrel of water sold between USD$7 to $9, up from an average of $3 in February 2021. In a Drought Need Assessment conducted in February by an NGO in Sool, Sanaag and Togdheer regions, about one-third of communities do not have access to sufficient water, with 88 per cent of water points unable to produce sufficient water for drinking. In Jubaland, 200-liter barrel cost about USD $14 as water pans which were the main source of water in the area dried up. As a result of the ongoing situation, water is trucked from locations 60 kilometers away for communities in Burgabo village in Jubaland.

In Lower Shabelle region of South West State, authorities and partners have reported that a 200-litre barrel of water currently costs around $4.5, a 20% increase compared to prices in December 2020.

In Middle Shabelle, consequences of water shortages forced about 5,000 farmers among riverine communities in Jowhar and Mahadaay to flee to Mogadishu in search of casual labour to support their families.

According to the latest UNICEF humanitarian situation report the water shortages and challenges of getting safe drinkingwater has contributed to cases of acute watery diarrhea (AWD) /cholera cases in some areas across the  country. According to Federal Ministry of Health and Human Services, a total of 88 suspected cases of cholera were reported in the last week of February from Bay, Afgoye, Merka and Banadir regions, with no reported deaths.  As of 23 March, the cumulative total number of suspected cholera cases in 2021 was 780, including 2 associated deaths with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 0.3%.

In response to the water crises, both federal and local authorities, and humanitarian partners are providing support in various areas. The humanitarian leadership mobilized $13.3 million from the Somalia Humanitarian Fund and $7 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to facilitate rapid response efforts for populations hardest hit by the water-shortage crisis as well as up to $20 million to activate the Anticipatory Action Framework. Puntland authorities have secured funding to rehabilitate five strategic boreholes with replacement of submersible pump, control panel, pipes, motors and storage tanks.  Once repaired, all five boreholes will serve up to 15,000 people cumulatively thus reducing the pressure on available water access points.  In Hiraan region, UNICEF has responded to areas affected by water shortages with water trucking in Belet Weyne, reaching about 18,000 people. Disease surveillance is being managed with the support from WHO through the the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) and is currently being expanded to all health facilities across the country.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Feature

DESERT LOCUST SITUATION IN SOMALIA

According to FAO, the Desert Locust upsurge showed signs of decline in March within Somalia and neighbouring countries due to ongoing control operations and poor rainfall. However, newly formed immature swarms were spotted in the plateaus of Iskushuban, Erigavo and Garowe of Puntland. Aerial and ground control operations reached 21,143 hectares and projected below-average Gu rains (April-June) expected to limit breeding. Despite control efforts, the presence of desert locusts in Puntland continues to negatively impact on people’s livelihoods due to destroyed crops and exhausted pasture. Nomadic communities are the most affected as an estimated 60 – 70 per cent of livelihoods in Puntland relies on pastoralism.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Feature
Data as of 25 December 2020
HRP funding per cluster

FUNDING UPDATE

The SHF to allocate US$13.3 million, but more resources are urgently needed to sustain life-saving response 

The Somalia Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has issued a call for project proposals to eligible partners under its First Standard Allocation Window of US$13.3 million. This is geared towards sustaining the life-saving response in areas experiencing pre-drought conditions including acute water shortages, causing the death of livestock, escalating hunger and extreme difficulty in growing crops. The crisis has been exacerbated by protection risks and limited access to health facilities and basic services. The SHF funds will also target underserved and hard-to-access areas through cluster-specific and integrated projects. Through the integrated response, 33 per cent of the $13.3 million will support vulnerable communities facing severe water shortages in Toghdeer, Gedo and Lower Juba, while the remaining funds will be used to support critical cluster-specific interventions across the country. 

Prioritized activities will help address food insecurity and acute water shortages through rehabilitation of dams and construction of water harvesting infrastructure, conditional cash transfers to access food, provision of fodder seeds and training on improved fodder production and management. Other project activities also aim to improve health and nutrition outcomes, through delivery of free basic and life-saving health services, training health care staff and provision of curative and preventative nutrition services.  

WASH services to most vulnerable communities living in underserved and hard-to-access areas in Hiraan, Sool, Bakool and Bay regions will also be enhanced through rehabilitation and construction of water infrastructure and installation and rehabilitation of sanitation facilities on the sites. SHF funds will support access to education for pre-drought affected children from IDP and poor host communities. Additionally, protection risks will be eased through the provision of emergency support items, shelter/NFI kits, dignity kits, cash for emergency assistance to victims of eviction, community psychosocial support and the establishment of referrals and provision of legal aid for GBVsurvivors. Children and other vulnerable individuals, particularly persons with special needs including those with disabilities, will be prioritized. 

This SHF allocation is complemented by two CERF allocations; a Rapid Response allocation of $7 million to address the critical water shortages and an Anticipatory Action allocation of $20 for early action against potential drought in many parts of Somalia.

While this early funding from the SHF is critical for continued programming, much more financial support is required to provide life-saving humanitarian assistance and livelihood support to millions of Somalis in 2021. As of 29 March, the 2021 HRP is only 3.9 percent funded ($43.1 M). Early funding can keep the situation from deteriorating further as weather predictions indicate lower than average rainfall in the Gu rainy season (April-June) due to effects of La Niña.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Hadiyo Mohamed seated in-front of her make-shift shelter in Gardoush settlement along the coastal area of Bari Region Somalia. Photo: Ayub Ahmed/UNOCHA
Cyclone Gati efffected communities in Bari region.

IN BREIF

Overcoming COVID-19 challenges in Education: Shukri’s story Shukri Habib Saed is a 16-year-old refugee student from an Ethiopian family who lives in Hargeisa. Her family consists of six members: father, mother and four young sisters (all in school). Her father works as a casual labourer at a construction site. Shukri is passionate about becoming a doctor and is currently studying medicine, with a goal to serve vulnerable people.

Shukri says, “From the beginning I had little to say about my education or future ambition, and I could not seriously think about going to school because I was very young and could not settle future goals. But my mother decided that life full of hardships and poverty was not suitable for us and she took me to a school supported by UNCHR/NRC. Thanks to both organizations, no school fees were required, and we were provided with a uniform, textbooks and notebooks. Mother regularly motivated me and my siblings to go far and study, so I absorbed that message and with my efforts, I aim to get higher grades in all my exams''.

Schools were closed due to COVID-19 restrictions between March and July 2020. This meant limited to no formal classroom instruction for students across the country. In the absence of formal learning, Shukri studied at home and spent all her time reading and studying on her own. Shukri mentioned that 2020 was different from previous years in other ways, noting, “This year, I was completing my primary level to secondary school. It is a moment in my academic journey I had been dreaming of for a long time! I wanted to score higher marks than any other student. I spent sleepless nights reading my books and reviewing past exam papers. Also, my target was to join iconic schools like SOS or Amano School, that can provide excellent academics and an opportunity to have more challenging lessons that will boost my talents and academic prosperity. So, the eighth grade national exam was the last test to determine which school I would join. When the result was announced, I was the top leading student in Somaliland, and was selected for Amano Boarding School.”

Shukri said, “The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on my lessons and classes. Learning was transformed to online and I had no smart phone, computer or internet connection. So, I collaborated with school friends and shared their phones in order to access my classes. With the removal of COVID-19 restrictions in Somaliland, physical classes are slowly re-starting, and I recently started the first class of secondary school.” With the generosity and help of UNCHR and NRC, Shurki’s school tuition fee is covered to enable her studies at Amano secondary school.

Among the many impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education sector has been hugely affected. Many children, including those living in IDP sites in particular, have been forced to discontinue learning due to the ongoing challenges, such as their parents losing livelihood sources.

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