Somalia

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Nearly 200,000 people have been affected and 42,000 people displaced due to moderate to heavy rainfall associated with Cyclone Gati
  • Against an increasing humanitarian caseload, transport access in some parts of the country remains a challenge
  • FAO warns of spread of desert locust infestation to the southern parts of the country while widespread hatching and hopper growth continues.
  • Despite growing humanitarian needs, funding per sector remains disproportionate; more than half of the clusters have received less than 35 per cent of required funding
  • Multi-purpose cash grants changing the lives of the IDPs in South Gaalkacyo
OCHA Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin - November - Photo: Warsame/OCHA
OCHA Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin - November - Photo: Warsame/OCHA

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Somalia

Situation Report

Key Figures

4.1M
# of food insecure people
1.3M
# of people in emergency and crisis
2.8M
# of people in stress
1M
# of children projected to be malnourished
2.6M
# of internally displaced persons

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Somalia

Situation Report

Funding

$1.1B
Required
$900.5M
Received
84%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Tareq Talahma

Head of office

Ayub Ahmed

Public Information Officer

Erich Ogoso

Head of Communication & Public Information Unit

Somalia

Situation Report
Emergency Response
People wadding through flooded streets in Bosaso . Photo: Bosaso mayor office
Desert locust situation in Somalia. Source: FAO.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Tropical Cyclone Gati aggravates humanitarian situation in Puntland

The humanitarian situation in Somalia has been aggravated by Cyclone Gati which made a landfall in Bari region, Puntland on 22 November. Moderate to heavy rainfall associated with the cyclone together with some heavy storms have affected nearly 200,000 people displacing 42,000 people mainly in Iskushuban district. The cyclone caused the death of nine people and disrupted livelihoods by destroying fishing gear, killing livestock, and flooding agricultural land and crops. The storm comes against the backdrop of existing compounded impact of the triple threat of COVID-19 pandemic, floods, an unprecedented desert locust upsurge which further deepened overall food insecurity within the country.

According to FAO-SWALIM, the unusual heavy rains in the area also led to immediate and short-term recharge of subsurface water sources and pasture growth especially in Somaliland which has had a prolonged dry period since September 2020. However, these rains are not enough to cater to the water deficit in the area. The forecast calls for light to moderate rains in most parts of the Southern regions. IGAD Climate Prediction & Application Centre (ICPAC) predicts drier than usual conditions likely to be recorded over most parts of Somalia, warning these conditions pose some risk to livelihoods. Farmers, pastoralists, and all stakeholders are advised to take appropriate measures to mitigate the impact of these drier than usual conditions.

Seasonal Deyr rains (October – December) have been erratic in Somalia starting late in most parts of the country. However, the rains have caused widespread flooding resulting in displacement, suspected deaths and destruction of key infrastructure including roads, houses, and farmland, according to humanitarian partners. At least 73,000 people have been affected by the Deyr rains and floods, mainly in Banadir, Jubaland, Hirshabelle, Galmudug and South West region since 23 October. Those affected include more than 53,000 IDPs and members of the host community in Baidoa town, in South West State, whose living conditions were already dire. The Deyr floods follow the Hagaa season (June-September) riverine and flash floods, which affected over 545,000 people in Hirshabelle, South West and Jubaland states.

Surge of desert locust infestation emerges in southern Somalia

The infestation of desert locust continues to spread in the Southern parts of Somalia. This follows warning in mid-November by FAO. In Banadir region, locusts were spotted hovering in parts of Dayniile and Kahda. Local farmers have reported that locusts have destroyed pastures, trees, and gardens that had just began to grow. In Jubaland State, the situation is worsening, with more than 20 villages and pastoral areas surrounding Dhobley and Afmadow district affected. In South West State, Swarms of locusts have been reported in Lower Shabelle and in the Bay region. An estimated 200 hectares of farmland have been destroyed in Afgooye-Marka. In Puntland, immature and mature swarms of desert locusts are present in many areas where breeding is ongoing due to favorable weather conditions following recent rains. It is projected that the hatched swarms will start hovering around areas with vegetation in search of food depending on direction of wind. In Hirshabelle State, huge presence of newly hatched locusts have been spotted in Hiiraan and Middle Shabelle regions.

In response, ongoing desert locust surveys and control operation for both land and air have been scaled up, while resources including aircrafts, vehicles, equipment, biopesticides, insect growth regulators and staff have been strategically positioned in various parts of the country. In Jubaland, as a response to fight against the locust infestation, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture contributed 140 backpack sprayers and PPE kits and 280 liters of pesticide to the Jubaland Ministry of agriculture and irrigation. Response has been ongoing throughout the month of November in five districts in Gedo region and four districts in Lower Juba.

According to FAO, control efforts in Puntland, Galmudug and the southern states are targeting the remaining mature adult swarms and the newly emerged hopper bands. From the beginning of 2020 to mid-November, 96,932 hectares have been treated, of which 38,192 were treated by air. This intervention has protected 204,964 metric tonnes of cereals over one season and saved US$61.5 million in incomes. FAO is also providing spray equipment and chemicals to farmers to protect their crops. To support livelihoods, 24,300 households have been reached with livelihood package southcentral Somalia and Somaliland. Of $56.9 million required for the locust response, FAO has received $50.4 million.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Feature
UNHAS flight being loaded in Mogadishu. Photo: WFP
UNHAS flight being loaded in Mogadishu. Photo: WFP

Understanding factors affecting humanitarian air transportation needs in Somalia

Air transport is an important tool in enabling humanitarian access and humanitarian delivery but comes with risks and challenges.  In Somalia, with a limited road network outside major urban centres and accessibility to some districts--in particular those in southern and central regions-- due to poor infrastructure and the fluid security situation, road movement and security restrictions are frequent occurrences hampering humanitarians’ access to deliver much needed supplies to those in need. The use of aircraft in accessing some areas is therefore key. Through joint efforts, the UN and commercial flights transport people and aid across the country.  However, these modalities have been met with challenges in 2020 including two incidents directly involving aircraft involved in delivering humanitarian supplies.

On 4 May, a chartered cargo plane carrying mosquito nets for IDPs in the town of Bardaale was reportedly shot down by security forces while landing in a case of mistaken identification, resulting in the death of all six people on board.  As a result of the incident, the airport at Bardaale was closed. While supplies continued to be flown into Baidoa, access by road to Bardaale using commercial contractors has been intermittent due to insecurity, restricting the flow of humanitarian aid. In late May, a WFP chartered aircraft carrying humanitarian supplies to Qansax Dheere was hit by ground fire by unknown perpetrators. Fortunately, there were no reported casualties nor significant damage. However, as a result, flights to Qansax Dheere were immediately suspended and consequently, affecting partners’ ability to replenish stocks.

Elsewhere, Ceel Waaq airport was refurbished earlier in the year but remains closed to both humanitarian and commercial flights, awaiting security and Civil Aviation Agency clearances before it reopens.  Meanwhile, mortar attacks against security forces/troops at the airfields in Baidoa, Baraawe, Bulo Burto and Dinsoor all raise concerns for the security of humanitarian flights.  Finally, in late October and early November, Al Shabaab launched mortar attacks against Dhuusamarreeb airport, in the second attack, targeting an aircraft carrying the President of Galmudug as it was taking off resulting in the temporary closure of the airfield, preventing the transport of humanitarian supplies.

Advocacy for a safe operating environment continues. Following collective efforts and engagement by OCHA and the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management, Bardaale District Council has announced the reopening of the Bardaale airport and efforts are underway to resume humanitarian flights.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Feature
Data as of 25 November 2020

FUNDING UPDATE

Somalia Humanitarian Fund: The humanitarian needs outpace available funding

The humanitarian operation in Somalia remains underfunded despite the increasing humanitarian needs. By 25 November, US$ 1.04 billion had been received for the Somalia humanitarian operation; about $791 million of which was allocated towards the 2020 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) covering 78 per cent of the $1.01 billion requirement and $250 million for activities outside the plan.

While donor support has enabled humanitarian partners to scale up response, current funding is lower in comparison to the same period in 2019. Against this backdrop, funding per sector remains disproportionate and clusters are struggling to meet sector targets. Protection and Health clusters remain significantly underfunded with only about 18 per cent and 26 per cent of their requirement met.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Shelter and Non-food Items clusters are below 40 per cent. Timely and strong support from donors is required to respond to existing needs and allow for a scale up where the situation is deteriorating.

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Somalia

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Saqo feeding the goat she purchased using the cash grant at Burbusharo. Photo: NRC
Eviction and prevention in 2020

IN BREIF

Multi-Purpose Cash Grants changing the lives of the IDPs in South Gaalkacyo

In South Gaalkacyo, Burbisharo IDP settlement is home to 1,200 IDPs displaced by severe drought that broke out in Mudug region in 2016-17. Due to unreliable sources of income and limited labor opportunities, access to formal/informal credit and productive assets of the household, most of the IDPs living in the settlement face food shortage, malnutrition affecting children, poor health services and lack of education. Saqo Jama, 35, with a family of five children now lives in Burbisharo IDP settlement. Saqo was displaced by the 2016-17 drought and fled her rural area nearby Docol Village and came to Galkayo in the effort of searching for humanitarian assistance.

The drought claimed all their livestock herds. Since then, Saqo and her family have been living in the settlement. Living on one meal a day, Saqo and her family had experienced different types of negative coping mechanisms. Saqo said, ‘’I used to go out to beg relatives and neighbors, while also searching for casual low paying jobs in town including doing domestic chores.’’

From a project funded by German Federal Foreign Office, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is providing Integrated life-saving cash assistance for displaced people and vulnerable host populations in Bari, Sool, Sanaag and Togdheer Regions, South central Somalia. The main purpose of the multipurpose cash assistance is to improve the livelihood and make sure their basic needs are met. Saqo, among other beneficiaries, have received US$80 for the past two months. In central Somalia, the project targeted 1,456 vulnerable families in Gaalkacyo south IDP camps and Dhuusamarreeb District.

Saqo narrates how she spent the grant she received from NRC noting, "with the first-month’s payment I used to repay some debts and the remaining I have purchased food items. With the second-month’s payment, I purchased food and bought a she-goat for milk production.” 

In Somalia, more than ever, long-term development is needed to prevent vulnerable population into sliding back to crises. Investments in cash-based safety nets, better health services, education and resilience building by Somali government and both humanitarian and development partners are essential.

Somalia participates in global 16 Days of Activism campaign against gender-based violence

The 2020 global 16 Days of Activism is a call to end the disturbing impact of gender-based violence in communities. The activism spanning 25 November-10 December. This year, the Somalia Federal Government, with support from partners and civil society organised various events in observation of the 16 Days.

According to a 2020 survey conducted by UNFPA, over 60 per cent of women reported physical abuse, denial of education, forced marriage, rape and sexual harassment forms of domestic violence and 14 per cent of women aged 15-49 had experienced physical violence since the age of 12, while 8 per cent reported they had experienced physical violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. Against this backdrop, gender-based violence has increased amid the COVID-19 pandemic.  Incidents of intimate partner violence, rape, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse of women and girls spiked about 25 per cent in the first half of 2020 compared to the same period in previous years.

Collaborative efforts by the Federal Government and all humanitarian and development partners will be critical in ensuring long term solutions to end violence against children and women and ensure they can benefit from advances in education, health, better nutrition and protection for the hope of a brighter future.

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