Sudan

Situation Report

Highlights

  • About 349,000 people have been affected by heavy rains and floods across the county. About 146 people have been killed and another 122 injured.
  • Rains and floods have destroyed at least 24,800 homes and damaged another 48,200 homes in 16 out of the 18 states.
  • Health partners have reached about 86,000 people affected by floods with health services.
  • UNHCR warns of surging needs in Sudan amid skyrocketing prices and gaps in humanitarian funding.
  • Sudan is facing a deepening hunger crisis as climate shocks, protracted conflict and skyrocketing food prices leave families struggling to afford basic food commodities – WFP
Darfur & Kordofan Conflict

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Sudan

Situation Report

Key Figures

11.7M
severely food-insecure people
10.9M
people targeted for assistance in 2022
7.1M
People reached with aid (Jan - June 22)
3.71M
Internally Displaced People
63,280
total people who contracted COVID-19
4,961
COVID-19-related deaths
59,501
Ethiopian refugees in the east & Blue Nile

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Sudan

Situation Report

Funding

$1.9B
Required
$718.7M
Received
37%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Justin Brady

Head of Office for OCHA Sudan (a.i.)

Sofie Karlsson

Head, Communications

James Steel

Head, Information Management

Alimbek Tashtankulov

Public Information Officer

Sudan

Situation Report
Visual

Sudanese refugees and asylum-seekers in neighbouring and other countries

Sudanese refugees and asylum-seekers in neighbouring and other countries

There are about 840,000 Sudanese refugees and asylum-seekers in 10 countries, with Chad hosting 46 per cent and South Sudan hosting 37 per cent of the total number, according to the UNHCR.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Trends
Weekly floods map 26 Sep 2022

Weekly Floods Round-up, No. 08 (26 September 2022)

Seasonal rains and flash floods continue to affect thousands of people and inflict damage on property across Sudan. By 26 September, almost 349,000 people had been affected, according to the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), humanitarian organisations on the ground, and local authorities. The rains and floods destroyed at least 24,860 homes and damaged another 48,250 in 16 of the 18 states. The National Council for Civil Defence reported that 146 people died and 122 people were injured since the beginning of the rainy season in June.

The most affected states are South Darfur (79,937 people), Gedaref (64,685 people), Central Darfur (41,747), White Nile (34,357), and Kassala (25,890). The other affected states are Northern (18,046), West Darfur (17,354),River Nile (16,572), North Kordofan (15,235), Aj Jazirah (8,715), West Kordofan (6,030), South Kordofan (5,768), Sennar (5,379), and East Darfur (3,650), with more limited impact in Khartoum (2,741), and North Darfur (2,621).

Reportedly, people have lost over 4,800 heads of livestock, and over 12,100 feddans (about 5,100 hectares) of agricultural land have been affected by floods, which will exacerbate the already worrying levels of food insecurity people across the country are facing.

According to the 2022 Sudan Emergency Response Plan (ERP), more than 460,000 people across the country could be affected by floods in 2022. Between 2017 and 2021, on average 388,600 people were affected by floods annually. This year, the number of flood-affected people has surpassed the number of people affected in 2021 (about 314,500).

According to the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) forecast for 20 - 27 September 2022, light rainfall (less than 50 mm) is expected over southern Sudan.

Meanwhile, the Nile water levels are below flooding risk levels at Atbara (about 317 km north of Khartoum) and Ed Deim water stations (about 550 km southeast of Khartoum). As of 24 September, the water levels are above the flooding risk level at Shandi (17.68 metres), and Khartoum water stations (16.94 metres).

The rainy season in Sudan usually starts in June and lasts up to September, with the peak of rains and flooding observed between August and September. For more information on floods and updated figures of people affected and areas, as well as rainfall forecast and water levels at water stations on the Nile River please see the 2022 Floods Dashboard.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response

Sudan: Flood Response Update No. 02 (25 September 2022)

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Heavy rains and flash floods have affected about 349,000 people across the country as of 22 September, according to the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), humanitarian organizations on the ground, and local authorities. The rains and floods have destroyed at least 24,800 homes and damaged another 48,200 in 16 out of the 18 states. The National Council for Civil Defence reported in the media that 146 people have died, and more than 122 people were injured since the beginning of the rainy season in June.

The most affected states are South Darfur, Gedaref, Central Darfur, White Nile, and Kassala, followed by Northern, West Darfur, River Nile, North Kordofan, Aj Jazirah, West Kordofan, South Kordofan, Sennar, and East Darfur. Khartoum and North Darfur have been less impacted.

Most of the clusters reported that due to poor road access to hard-to-reach areas affected by floods and poor infrastructure in some of the areas hamper the timely delivery of nutrition services.

HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

Education

Response:

  • Floods have impacted over 397 schools (272 damaged and 125 destroyed), affecting the education of about 140,000 children. An additional 241 schools have reportedly been affected and are currently being verified.

  • Partners are mobilizing supplies, including more than 75 tents that will be used as temporary learning spaces, as well as teaching, learning, and recreational materials that will support more than 13,000 children.

  • Damage to school infrastructures will significantly push back the start date of the 2022-2023 academic year. Nine states have already rescheduled the start of the academic year from 18 September to mid-October or later.

  • In the medium and long-term, the rehabilitation of classrooms will be required to repair the flood damage and ensure children are able to access safe school environments conducive to learning.

Gaps and Constraints:

  • Urgent funds are needed to meet these needs of more than 125,000 school children who will require assistance to return to school at the start of the 2022-2023 academic year.

Response:

  • 3,000 people affected by floods in Aj Jazirah and River Nile states were reached with food assistance through the United Peace Organization (UPO) and the Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL) cluster.

  • The FSL cluster, through Qatar Charity, distributed 1,600 food baskets in 11 villages in Barber locality in River Nile State. Assistance was also provided to about 1,000 households in seven villages in Al Managil locality in Aj Jazirah State.

  • In West Darfur, FSL partners plan to reach 1,000 people with cash assistance.

  • Qatar Charity plans to distribute 8,400 food baskets in flood-affected areas in Gedaref, Aj Jazirah and Kassala states.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Limited logistic services have impacted food distribution.

  • Some of the areas affected are still recovering from the impact of floods and dry spells in 2021 and 2022.

Health

Response:

  • UNICEF prepositioned health and nutrition supplies in July 2022, ahead of the rainy season. The supplies included medicines, medical supplies and kits enough to cover the needs of 4.2 million people for 3 months as well as 36,229 long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to support 116,595 women and children in priority states.

  • Health cluster partners supported 10 mobile clinics and all health facilities in the affected localities in Darfur and Kordofan, Blue Nile, Kassala, and Gedaref states ensuring access to expanded programme of immunization (EPI), Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), Antenatal Care (ANC) and Post Natal Care (PNC), and birth support.

  • Ahead of the rainy season, UNFPA prepositioned life-saving sexual reproductive health supplies across the country, enough to cover the needs of 101,700 people. The supplies include delivery kits, emergency obstetric care, other sexual reproductive health supplies, and commodities of case management, family planning, etc.

  • UNFPA reached over 55,5000 people with medical consultations and over 30,700 people with sexual reproductive health consultations in South Darfur, North Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, West Darfur, and Kassala states.

  • WHO provided 500 rapid detection cholera kits, 300 oral rehydration cartons, and medicines enough to cover the needs of 5,000 people.

  • WHO received 334 Rapid Response Kits (RRKs) and 75 inter-agency health kits, enough to cover the health needs of 1 million people for three months.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • There is limited laboratory diagnostic capacity for epidemic detection in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. Laboratory capacity to culture cholera specimens is only available at the national level.

  • There is a critical shortage of Acute Water Diarrhoea (AWD) periphery kits, AWD community care kits and AWD community kit drugs.

  • There is limited water quality monitoring and testing.

  • There is a lack of cholera vaccine supply.

  • Lack of mobile clinic coverage for the newly displaced people.

Nutrition

Response:

  • Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) mass screening targeting children under five years and pregnant and lactating women (PLW) and active case-finding have been carried out.

  • Partners have established and supported mother support groups and breastfeeding corners for Infant and Young Children Feeding (IYCF) counselling to strengthen preventative nutrition services.

  • Nutrition partners continued supporting severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) treatment in outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTP) and targeted supplementary feeding programme (TSFP) sites. Partners are also supporting referrals for SAM with medical complications.

  • Established temporary integrated primary healthcare (PHC) and mobile teams in hard-to-reach areas.

  • IYCF counselling for PLWs and caretakers have been carried out in all flood-affected states.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Limited referral support for SAM cases of children under five years with medical complications.

  • Limited capacity and resources for the treatment of acute malnutrition—using the community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) approach—and preventive nutrition interventions, including emergency blanket supplementary feeding program (e-BSFP) for children under five years and PLWs.

Protection

Response:

  • In Darfur states, the cluster shared protection mainstreaming guidance with partners and other clusters to support advocacy for the prioritization of vulnerable groups and in response.

  • The Protection cluster also participated in inter-agency needs assessment activities in affected areas.

  • In Blue Nile State, protection partners supported flood mitigation measures by providing tools for cleaning drainages.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • In East Darfur, no available food stock was reported; this may increase protection risks for vulnerable families, particularly women and girls as they may travel long distances to get food.

Child Protection

Response:

  • Several protection partners are providing psychosocial and material support for children and adolescents affected by floods.

  • Vital registration activities—including birth registration—are ongoing in states affected by floods.

  • Psychosocial support to affected children and families is being carried out.

  • Rapid needs assessments were conducted by child protection partners in flood-affected localities in Central Darfur, West Darfur, South Darfur, and White Nile states.

  • Child Protection Key messages were developed and disseminated in all states to create awareness of children’s protection during the flood crisis.

  • 270 blankets and 103 recreation kits have been distributed in South and East Darfur targeting flood-affected families and children.

  • Child protection key standard messages were adapted to the state level for children's protection during the floods.

  • There are plans to establish mobile child-friendly spaces to address psychosocial issues for children affected by floods.

Gap & Constraints:

  • Partner capacity to effectively respond to child protection needs is limited.

Gender-based Violence (GBV)

Response:

  • 5,650 dignity kits were distributed in Blue Nile, Kassala, South Darfur, and South Kordofan states.

  • 115 social workers and counsellors were deployed to provide quality psychosocial services and referral services in Central, South, North, and West Darfur, South Kordofan, Gedaref, Kassala, Blue Nile and White Nile states.

  • Lifesaving health services such as clinical management of rape (CMR) were provided in Central, South, North, and West Darfur, Gedaref, Kassala, South Kordofan, Blue Nile and White Nile states.

  • 43 social workers and counsellors have been trained on lifesaving gender-based violence (GBV) services.

  • 7,071 vulnerable people in the Blue Nile, White Nile, South Darfur, South Kordofan, and Kassala states were reached with awareness sessions on the life-threatening risks of GBV and available services.

  • The GBV sub-cluster working group is operational in Central, South, North, and West Darfur, Gedaref, Kassala, South Kordofan, Blue Nile and White Nile states.

Gap & Constraints:

  • An additional 43,213 dignity kits are needed to reach vulnerable women and girls of reproductive age.

  • There is a critical shortage of Rape Treatment Kits (RTKs)

  • Referral pathways have been interrupted due to limited access to affected localities in Central, South, North, West, Gedaref, Kassala, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and White Nile states.

  • There are limited safe spaces for women and girls that can provide GBV services.

  • There are limited or no GBV activities in some of the flood-affected states, such as Northern, Aj Jazirah, River Nile, Sennar, and West Kordofan due to the funding gap and lack of partners.

Shelter & Non-Food Items (S/NFIs)

Response:

  • About 42,000 people (8,322 families) affected by floods received non-food item (NFI) assistance across the Darfurs and Kordofans and in Khartoum, Kassala, Gedaref, White Nile and Aj Jazirah states.

  • At least 5,300 more kits have been prepositioned, with more kits from both IOM and UNHCR in the pipeline.

  • About 600 tents have been distributed by Qatar Charity with 1,000 more in the pipeline. Bilateral support from other middle eastern countries such as UAE and Saudi Arabia include similar support.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • An additional 30,000 NFI kits are needed to support people affected by floods.

  • There is a critical shortage of emergency shelter kits to support 16,800 houses destroyed by heavy rains and flooding.

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Response:

  • In Gedaref State, UNICEF, IOM, and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) distributed water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) NFIs for 6,000 people affected by floods. This includes 12,000 bars of soap, 585 hygiene kits, 25,000 strips of chlorine tablets, and 1,170 jerry cans.

  • WHO trained 24 environmental health officers to support water quality monitoring in all localities in Gedaref State.

  • UNICEF and the State Ministry of Health (SMoH) pre-positioned WASH supplies (soap, plastic sheets, latrine slabs, jerry cans and hygiene kits) in three critical localities Galabat Ash-Shargiah, Al Mafaza and Basundah in Gedaref state to support 5,000 people.

  • In Central Darfur State, 3,000 people benefitted from the construction of 500 emergency household latrines and an additional 1,200 people will be reached with WASH NFI assistance. Also, 40 community members were trained on hygiene promotion to support the hygiene awareness sessions at community level.

  • In White Nile State, IOM reached 2,500 people with hygiene kits and WASH NFI distributions.

  • NRC supported 16,535 refugees in Dabat Bosin Camp (Aj Jabalain locality, White Nile) through the rehabilitation of water points, soap distribution, hygiene promotion, and construction/management of latrines.

  • In White Nile’s Tendalti and As Salam localities, WHO and ADRA reached 35,000 people with vector control activities and UNICEF distributed chlorine tablets to 12,450 people and 7,200 people received soap.

  • In South Darfur State, more than 640,000 chlorine tablets were distributed and around 500 collapsed latrines were disinfected, treated and replaced.

  • In Barbar locality in River Nile State, UNICEF and Save the Children (SC) provided WASH supplies, water quality treatment tablets, and communal water treatment supplies.

  • In West Darfur State, about 2,520 people were reached with basic sanitation services and hygiene promotion. WASH partners distributed soap and hygiene kits and rehabilitated 12 hand pumps, one water yard, and 30 emergency latrines in Ag Geneina gathering sites. In Kereneik locality, 8,500 families received WASH NFIs.

  • In West Kordofan State, 87 community latrines were rehabilitated, 36,000 hygiene items were distributed, and 5,000 people received water treatment tablets.

  • In East Darfur State, partners prepositioned emergency stocks for 428 households. Hygiene awareness-raising sessions—including risk communication and behavioural change communication interventions—were provided.

  • There has been a scale-up of water quantity monitoring and surveillance activities supporting 32,000 people in camps hosting IDPs and refugees in El Neem, Elfardous (South Darfur), Abu Matariq, Adela, and Abu Jabra (East Darfur).

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Disease outbreaks pose a high risk particularly in high concentration areas.

  • Water and sanitation are priority needs, especially for those who have been displaced. However, there is limited capacity and resources for response.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis
IDP returnee village in North Jebel marra Locality in Central Darfur UNHCR Modesta Ndubi
IDP returnee village in Shamal Jabal Marrah locality in Central Darfur ©UNHCR/Modesta Ndubi

UNHCR warns of surging needs in Sudan amid skyrocketing prices and gaps in humanitarian funding

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is warning of spiralling humanitarian needs for refugees and displaced people in Sudan as living costs skyrocket amidst the ripple effects of the war in Ukraine, lingering impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, and extreme weather resulting from the climate crisis.

Sudan hosts among the largest number of displaced people on the African continent, including over 1.1 million refugees – mostly from South Sudan – and 3.7 million internally displaced Sudanese, mainly in Darfur and Kordofan.

Inflation had already risen steeply in 2020 and remains much higher than pre-COVID-19 levels. Steep increases in food and non-food prices and shortages of essential goods including bread and fuel are putting a strain on host communities, and disproportionately impacting the forcibly displaced, especially those without any financial support.

UNHCR is working with the government and partners to scale up our response, but efforts to provide lifesaving support to refugees and displaced Sudanese face immense strain because of acute underfunding. Limited support could leave many refugees and local communities without vital assistance, leaving them more prone to taking risks that could result in serious harm.

By 13 September, UNHCR had received just one-third of the US$348.9 million needed in 2022 to deliver an effective response and provide life-saving assistance and protection amidst the growing needs.

Resource constraints mean most plans for emergency, transitional or durable shelters will not go ahead. Only one in five refugees in need of legal documentation will receive it. Existing and planned projects supporting refugee integration will be suspended. Support for self-reliance and resilience will be affected. Two-thirds of protection monitoring work for internally displaced people will not take place, and other vital programmes will need to be limited or cut.

Making life even harder for refugees and internally displaced people are this year’s seasonal rains and floods. Displaced communities are among the 299,500 people affected by heavy rains and flash floods as of 19 September, according to Sudanese authorities and humanitarian organizations on the ground. The rains and floods have submerged houses and farmlands and killed livestock. For the people who have fled violence, the floods have created a crisis on top of a crisis. Communities with fewer resources, and less capacity to adapt to an increasingly inhospitable environment, are facing the worst impacts of extreme weather resulting from the climate crisis.

UNHCR is urging the international community to provide the funding needed by humanitarian organizations in Sudan, to support refugees, internally displaced people, and their host communities.

For more information, please contact:

In Nairobi (regional), Faith Kasina, kasina@unhcr.org, +254 113 427 094

In Khartoum, Assadullah Nasrullah, nasrulla@unhcr.org, +249 912 178 991

In Geneva, Boris Cheshirkov, cheshirk@unhcr.org, +41 79 433 76 82

In New York, Kathryn Mahoney, mahoney@unhcr.org, +1 347 574 6552

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

Sudan faces deepening hunger crisis amid protracted conflict, climate shocks and skyrocketing prices - WFP

Sudan is facing a deepening hunger crisis as climate shocks, protracted conflict and skyrocketing food prices leave families struggling to access and afford basic food commodities. At least 15 million people, or one-third of the population, are facing hunger in Sudan, according to WFP’s latest Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment. This is a 50 per cent increase compared to last year. Earlier this year, WFP warned that up to 18 million people could face food insecurity by September and there are assessments ongoing to confirm whether our worst fears have come true.

Sudan has been hit by heavy rains and floods since August that are disrupting the planting season and will affect output. Nearly 5,000 hectares of land have already been damaged or destroyed. Meanwhile, insecurity continues to restrict people’s access to farmlands in the Darfurs. We had the opportunity to visit people in the IDP camps in Darfur recently. Time and again, concerns over safety, security, and their ability to access their land to cultivate were the issues they raised. As we enter the planting season in Sudan, WFP is very worried about the impact that the ongoing conflict and climate shocks will have on the next harvest. The last harvest was already very poor, with cereal production 30 per cent lower than the last five-year average.

The unfolding global food crisis has also pushed the prices of staples out of reach of many in Sudan with the cost of a basic food basket up by 137 per cent year on year. Almost every family is spending more than two-thirds of their income on food alone, which leaves little money to cover other needs.

Concerted action is required to prevent people from slipping further into hunger.

WFP works in Sudan on two fronts: saving lives that are at immediate risk of starvation, while building the foundation for communities to meet their own food needs. In the face of unprecedented needs and an uncertain funding outlook, WFP is focusing on longer-term programmes to build communities’ resilience and self-reliance.

To date, during 2022 WFP has supported nearly 5 million people across Sudan, including 2.4 million people with food assistance, nearly 1.3 million young children and mothers with nutrition supplements to treat and prevent malnutrition and 1.8 million school-aged children with school meals or take-home rations. We are also helping to boost productive safety nets and supporting farmers to reduce crop losses after harvest.

The resources we have now are not sufficient.

WFP is aiming to reach 10 million people in 2022 with food assistance and resilience programmes, but the uncertain funding outlook could hamper our ability to reach that target.

In July, WFP had to cut rations in half for refugees meaning that the people we assist only receive 1,000 calories per day, rather than the full 2,200 calories. The IDPs supported by WFP are also only receiving half rations. These are heart-wrenching decisions and without additional funding, other programmes are also at risk of being put on hold or stopped completely.

Our nutrition activities that treat and prevent moderate acute malnutrition for pregnant and nursing women and children under five are only 50 per cent funded for the year. Without additional resources, our school meals programme, which provides lunch for children at school, will have to be completely halted by January 2023. School-based programmes provide families with a strong incentive to send their children to school, so the loss of the programme will also impact education opportunities for Sudan’s youngest generation.

WFP urgently needs US$201 million over the next six months to maintain this lifeline for people who desperately need it. The time to act for the people of Sudan, to prevent the situation from getting even worse is NOW.

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The United Nations World Food Programme is the world’s largest humanitarian organization, saving lives in emergencies and using food assistance to build a pathway to peace, stability and prosperity for people recovering from conflict, disasters and the impact of climate change.

CONTACT

Leni Kinzli, WFP/Sudan, leni.kinzli@wfp.org, Mob. +249 91 277 1269

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

Children in Sudan are in the middle of a perfect storm of crises - UNICEF

This is a summary of what was said by UNICEF Representative, Mandeep O’Brien, to whom quoted text may be attributed - at a special press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva on 23 September 2022

This briefing underscores the enormity of challenges the children of Sudan face and shares some sense of what action is urgently required. Children are caught in a perfect storm of crises on top of crises.

More than one out of every three of Sudan’s children are in need of humanitarian assistance. This staggering statistic translates to almost 8 million girls and boys. This is an increase of 2.7 million or 35 per cent since 2020.

Much of this is on the back of growing food insecurity, a problem that has intensified persistent malnutrition, water, health, and education crises for children across Sudan.

Three million children under 5 years of age in Sudan are acutely malnourished, of which 650,000 suffer from severe acute malnutrition. Approximately half of them will die without treatment.

Routine immunization rates in Sudan are declining. Between 2019 and 2021 the number of children who have not received a single dose of lifesaving vaccines doubled.

Close to 40 per cent of the population don’t have access to basic drinking water supply. Seventy per cent of the population don’t have access to basic sanitation.

Basic healthcare, water, hygiene and sanitation are vital to saving child lives. It is essential if a country is to fight infectious diseases in early childhood and interrupt the vicious cycle between malnutrition and disease outbreaks.

Finally, seven million children are out of school in Sudan. Seventy per cent of 10-year-olds are unable to read and understand a simple sentence.

Sudan’s children require a firm foundation of quality learning that is both relevant to their lives and equips them with the skills needed for the labour market of the 21st century.

With all this in mind, consider these last statistics: Over the past year, Sudan’s health budget has dropped from 9 per cent to 3 per cent of total public expenditure, and the education budget has dropped from 12.5 per cent to 1 per cent.

Of course, the children of Sudan are not responsible for the deteriorating health and education systems. But they are the first victims to bear the brunt.

What then needs to be done?

One, we call upon the Sudanese authorities to urgently increase public expenditures towards the delivery of lifesaving and life-sustaining social services for children and communities.

Two, we call upon the international community to stand in solidarity with the children of Sudan and to increase humanitarian and resilience funding for the country.

With four months left in 2022, humanitarian partners have received just 34 per cent of the funding we need, as per the Humanitarian Response Plan, with some sectors severely underfunded with only 13 per cent of the US$102 million Education in Emergencies appeal covered.

I know I have shared some deeply troubling data today, but in a final sentence:

What is already a crisis for children in Sudan will become a catastrophe if action is not taken.

Media contacts

Joe English UNICEF New York Tel: +1 917 893 0692 Email: jenglish@unicef.org

James Elder UNICEF Geneva Tel: +254 71558 1222 Email: jelder@unicef.org

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

Sudan Humanitarian Update, July - August 2022

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Since the start of 2022, over 177,000 people were newly displaced in Sudan due to conflict, including 126,000 people in Darfur.

  • This includes an estimated 31,000 people who were displaced from parts of Blue Nile in July 2022.

  • Over 258,000 people have been affected by heavy rains and floods across the country.

  • Prices of locally grown sorghum and millet continue to increase reaching new record levels in August.

  • Refugees from South Sudan and Ethiopia continued to seek shelter, protection and other assistance in Sudan.

  • The 2022 Sudan HRP is 31.5 per cent funded by the end of August 2022.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

The humanitarian situation in Sudan continued to worsen during July-August 2022, with 177,350 people newly displaced due to conflict between January-August 2022, including 126,000 newly displaced people in Darfur (accounting for about 71 per cent of all newly displaced people in 2022). Parts of Darfur, especially West Darfur State are experiencing a double whammy of local conflict, displacement and food insecurity. According to the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) update on food insecurity in Sudan, West Darfur has one of the highest ratios of acutely food insecure people in Sudan – 42 per cent. Almost every second person in West Darfur is estimated to be experiencing crisis or worse levels of food insecurity (IPC Phases 3 and up).

IPC’s latest update on food security in Sudan issued in June estimates that 11.7 million people in the country are acutely food insecure between June and September 2022, the peak of the lean season.

With the rainy season in full swing and approaching its peak between August and September, over 293,000 people have been affected by torrential rains and floods.

Humanitarian partners reached 7.1 million people across Sudan with some form of humanitarian assistance between January-June 2022. This is 65 per cent of the 10.9 million people targeted for assistance under the 2022 HRP, while they received only about 20 per cent of the funds requested. About 5.2 million people received food and livelihood assistance, close to 2 million people were provided with access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services, almost 1.9 million people were reached with mine action activities, and about 0.9 million people were covered with healthcare services. Moreover, close to 850,000 children were provided with nutrition services and nutritional supplements, 775,000 vulnerable people were reached with protection activities and 550,000 refugees received various forms of assistance, protection and support.

The reduction in funding compared to previous years limits the partners’ ability to respond, resulting in children not being able to fulfil their right to education. As the situation in Sudan worsens and fewer resources are made available for partners, the number of vulnerable families may increase because of the absence of programs. In addition to periodic confrontations between communities that caused the suspension of several planned projects from various partners, humanitarian access to vulnerable people, particularly in Darfur and Kordofan, was hampered. Secondary and new displacement impacted the mental and physical well-being of the affected people, and the psycho-social support beyond GBV response is a key gap. There are limited general protection actors across the country, particularly in the Blue Nile. About 80 per cent of localities in Sudan lack specialized GBV services such as clinical management of rape (CMR), Psycho-social support (PSS) and GBV case management. This service gap is further exacerbated by the shortage and high turnover of trained personnel and challenges with the referral of GBV survivors with transportation disruption. There are significant delays in the international procurement of medicines and medical supplies and a persistent lack of medicines in the local market, where availability does not exceed 31 per cent.

Over 38,000 people displaced in Blue Nile State

In July and August, about 38,000 people were displaced following a conflict in Ganis town, Ar Rusayris locality, Blue Nile State that started on 14 July 2022. An estimated 18,541 displaced people were displaced to Ed Damazine town and outside Damazine locality. An additional 12,800 people have reportedly arrived in neighbouring Sennar, another 4,854 people are in White Nile and about 1,220 displaced people moved to Aj Jazirah State, according to reports from local authorities and humanitarian partners in those locations. Humanitarian organizations provide displaced and affected people with assistance. Protection coverage and monitoring in IDP gathering points in the Blue Nile are ongoing. Health cluster partners reached around 125,000 people with health services, including IDPs and refugees. Health partners have dispatched health supplies enough to cater to the needs of 30,000 people for three months. WFP provided 4,742 displaced people staying at the ten schools in Damazine town with food assistance for one week. Additionally, WFP provided 7,953 mothers and U5 children with emergency blanket supplementary feeding (E-BSFP) for one month in Damazine and Rosaries localities. GBV Area of Responsibility (AoR) reported the distribution of 4000 dignity kits to women and girls, distributions of 1500 sanitary pads to women and girls, and 4000 women and girls were reached by sensitization session on Basic GBV issues and services available. Education cluster partners carry out many humanitarian interventions, including supporting 47 schools with equipment and other needed assistance. Humanitarian partners will kick off the construction of 9 schools in the Blue Nile in the first week of October

Humanitarian partners face many operational challenges in the Blue Nile. The IDPs' figures need to be verified regularly due to the frequent movement of the IDPs. Classrooms in the Blue Nile are not enough to accommodate the increasing number of children due to the IDPs influx. GBV partners reported limited capacity of GBV service providers in the Blue Nile. Health cluster partners indicated a lack of medical staff in the state. Poor road access to hard-to-reach areas affected by floods and poor infrastructure in some areas hampers the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance.

Rainy season and floods

As of 31 August, over 258,400 people have been affected by torrential rains and floods, according to the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) and humanitarian partners reports. Heavy rains and floods destroyed at least 16,907 houses and damaged another 44,592 in 15 states. The government authorities reported that 100 people died and another 96 have been injured since the beginning of the rainy season in late May. On 30 August, the water levels at Khartoum, Atbara and Ed Deim water stations exceeded the flooding risk levels, while in Shandi in northern Sudan water levels were approaching flooding risk levels.

The most affected states are Gedaref (58,935people), Central Darfur (41,747 people), Kassala (25,890 people) South Darfur (30,680 people), White Nile (34,357 people), River Nile (16,572 people), West Darfur (17,354 people). Nine other states have also been affected to varying degrees: West Kordofan (6,000 people), South Kordofan (5,765 people), North Kordofan (14,830 people), East Darfur (3,650 people), Sennar (5,379 people), Aj Jazirah (8,715 people), Khartoum (2,741 people), and North Darfur (2,621 people).

Initial humanitarian response by UN agencies and NGOs is ongoing. Close to 42,000 people received shelter and NFI supplies, 16,000 people were reached with food, and at least 86,000 people accessed health services. At least 90,000 people were provided with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) supplies. However, more funding is required to address the immediate needs of people affected by the floods.

Poor road access to hard-to-reach areas affected by floods and poor infrastructure in some areas hampers the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance. In addition, urgent funds are needed to meet the needs of more than 125,000 school children who will require assistance to return to school at the start of the 2022-2023 academic year. Finally, the health cluster reported limited laboratory diagnostic capacity for epidemic detection in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps.

The nutrition cluster reported limited capacity and resources for the treatment of acute malnutrition—using the community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) approach—and preventive nutrition interventions, including an emergency blanket supplementary feeding program (e-BSFP) for children under five years and Pregnant and Lactating Women (PLWs). Partner capacity to effectively respond to child protection needs is limited. Many children in detention centers and partners have limited capacity to deal with these cases.

An additional 43,213 dignity kits are needed to reach vulnerable women and girls of reproductive age. Referral pathways have been interrupted due to limited access to affected localities in Central, South, North, West, Gedaref, Kassala, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and White Nile states.

An additional 30,000 NFI kits are needed to support people affected by floods. In addition, there is a critical shortage of emergency shelter kits to support 16,800 houses destroyed by heavy rains and flooding. As a result, disease outbreaks pose a high risk, particularly in high concentration areas.

Food prices continue to rise

Prices of locally grown sorghum and millet continued to increase in August in most monitored markets in Sudan, rising by 10–35 per cent and reaching new record highs, according to FAO’s latest Food Prices Monitoring Analysis (FPMA) Bulletin. Seasonal patterns were compounded by a faster-than-usual depletion of stocks from the below-average 2021 harvest and by concerns over the performance of the 2022 harvest, to be gathered from November. The 2022 harvested area and yields are likely to have been adversely affected by below-average early season rains constraining plantings, localized losses due to floods and soaring prices of agricultural inputs, including fuel. An increase in customs duties, which further inflated fuel prices and transport costs, added pressure to prices.

Prices of wheat, mainly consumed in urban areas and mostly imported, increased by 5−20 per cent, while in the capital, Khartoum, prices of wheat in July were twice their year-earlier levels. Import requirements for the 2022 marketing year (January/December) for wheat, are officially forecast at about 2 million tonnes. The high reliance on imports from the Russian Federation and Ukraine (over 50 per cent) and the prevailing high prices of wheat on international markets, coupled with low foreign currency reserves and the continued devaluation of the national currency, raise serious concerns about the country’s capacity to fulfil its wheat requirements.

Cereal prices began to follow a sustained increasing trend in late 2017 due to the difficult macroeconomic situation, coupled with high prices of fuel and agricultural inputs inflating production and transportation costs. Heightened political instability and inter-communal clashes exerted further upward pressure on prices.

Refugees

Sudan continued to receive new refugees from neighbouring countries, mainly South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Since the start of 2022, about 30,000 refugees from South Sudan arrived in Sudan, mainly in White Nile State, East Darfur, West Kordofan and South Kordofan. Ethiopian refugees also continued to arrive in eastern Sudan and the Blue Nile Region, although in lower numbers. About 59,500 people had crossed into Sudan since the start of the crisis in northern Ethiopia in November 2020.

Owing to severe funding shortfalls, the World Food Programme (WFP) in Sudan was forced to cut rations for refugees across the country. WFP regularly assists over 550,000 refugees in Sudan. Starting in July, refugees received only half a standard food basket, on an in-kind or cash basis.

Humanitarian Access

Local-level conflict involving inter-tribal disputes and non-state armed groups continues to affect the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Darfur remains the area of principal concern, in particular, West Darfur and the Jabal Marrah region; however, recent violence has also taken place in Blue Nile State. Outbreaks of localized conflict often result in affected communities having restricted access to humanitarian assistance due to impediments by conflict parties or fears for personal safety. International humanitarian staff is required to obtain Travel Notifications (TNs) approval from authorities before traveling beyond where they are based. While TN requests in some states are only approved by HAC Offices, in other states, multiple approvals are applied, requiring specific locations and timeframes that limit the ability to react to frequently changing circumstances. In addition, bureaucratic delays in approvals of NGOs' Technical Agreements (TAs) impede programme delivery. TAs are linked with issuing NGOs international staff visas and work permits. This affects the quick deployment of staff, particularly during emergency times.

Funding

By mid-September 2022, the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) received $610.6 million, out of a total requirement of $1.94 billion (31.5 per cent funded), according to the financial tracking service (FTS). In September 2021, the 2021 HRP was funded at $658 million, out of a total requirement of $1.94 billion (34 per cent funded).

An additional $123.4million is funded outside the HRP, while in September 2021 this amounted to $166 million. Combined, this brings the difference in humanitarian funding in and outside the HRP compared to September 2021 to -$90 million, or -11 per cent.

The Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has a current balance of $13 million. It has allocated over $52 million, similar to what it allocated in all of 2021. This was due to various sudden onset emergencies, which required lifesaving response and funding. In the last month, it has allocated $1.8 million to the flood response and $4.5 million against several emergencies related to recent inter-communal violence.

The UN and humanitarian partners in Sudan thank humanitarian donors for their support to humanitarian action and response in the country. They also advocate for early and expedient funding for humanitarian operations as the localised conflict, internal civilian displacement, floods, economic crisis, inflation, food insecurity and other challenges increase the needs and their gravity and deprivation of millions of vulnerable people.

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Weekly floods map 19 Sep 2022

Weekly Floods Round-up, No. 07 (19 September 2022)

Seasonal rains and flash floods have affected about 299,500 people as of 19 September, according to the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), humanitarian organiыations on the ground and local authorities. The rains and floods have destroyed at least 17,600 homes and damaged another 45,100 in 16 of the 18 states. The National Council for Civil Defence reported that 129 people died and 120 people were injured since the beginning of the rainy season in June.

The most affected states are Gedaref (64,685 people), Central Darfur (41,747), White Nile (34,357), South Darfur (30,677) and Kassala (25,890). The other affected states are Northern (18,046), West Darfur (17,354),River Nile (16,572), North Kordofan (15,235), Aj Jazirah (8,715), West Kordofan (6,030), South Kordofan (5,765), Sennar (5,379), and East Darfur (3,650), with more limited impact in Khartoum (2,741), and North Darfur (2,621).

Reportedly, people have lost over 4,100 heads of livestock, and over 12,100 feddans (about 5,100 hectares) of agricultural land have been affected by floods, which will exacerbate the already worrying levels of food insecurity people across the country are facing.

According to the 2022 Sudan Emergency Response Plan (ERP), more than 460,000 people across the country could be affected by floods in 2022. In 2021, about 314,500 people were affected across Sudan, while between 2017 and 2021 on average 388,600 people were affected annually.

According to the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) forecast for 20 -27 September 2022, light rainfall (less than 50 mm) is expected over southern Sudan.

Meanwhile, the Nile water levels mostly continued descending from flooding risk to critical or below critical levels. On 18 September, only at Ed Deim water station (about 550km southeast of Khartoum) the water level was recorded above the flooding risk level - at 12.51 metres. In Khartoum, the water level of the Nile River was recorded at 16.02 metres – slightly above the critical level. At Shandi and Atbara stations, the water levels were recorded at 16.70 metres and 14.85 metres respectively, which are both below the critical level.

The rainy season in Sudan usually starts in June and lasts up to September, with the peak of rains and flooding observed between August and September. For more information on floods and updated figures of people affected and areas, as well as rainfall forecast and water levels at water stations on the Nile River please see the 2022 Floods Dashboard.

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FAO FPMA Sep 2022

Prices of grains surge to new record highs - FAO FPMA

Prices of locally grown sorghum and millet continued to increase in August in most monitored markets in Sudan, rising by 10–35 per cent and reaching new record highs, according to the September 2022 issue of the Food Price Monitoring and Analysis (FPMA) Bulletin by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Seasonal patterns were compounded by a faster-than-usual depletion of stocks from the below-average 2021 harvest and by concerns over the performance of the 2022 harvest, to be gathered from November. The 2022 harvested area and yields are likely to have been adversely affected by below-average early season rains constraining plantings, localized losses due to floods and by soaring prices of agricultural inputs, including fuel.

An increase in customs duties, which further inflated fuel prices and transport costs, added pressure to prices. Prices of wheat, mainly consumed in urban areas and mostly imported, increased by 5−20 per cent, while in the capital, Khartoum, prices of wheat in July where twice their year-earlier levels. Import requirements for the 2022 marketing year (January/December) for wheat, are officially forecast at about 2 million tonnes.

The high reliance on imports from the Russian Federation and Ukraine (over 50 percent) and the prevailing high prices of wheat on international markets, coupled with low foreign currency reserves and the continued devaluation of the national currency, raise serious concerns about the country’s capacity to fulfil its wheat requirements.

Cereal prices began to follow a sustained increasing trend in late 2017 due to the difficult macroeconomic situation, coupled with high prices of fuel and agricultural inputs inflating production and transportation costs. Heightened political instability and intercommunal clashes exerted further upward pressure on prices.

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Sudan MSNA - 2022: households health indicators, September 2022

Sudan MSNA 2022 health indicators

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UNICEF-Sudan-Noorani 2019
@UNICEF Sudan/Noorani/2019

Joint Statement: 6.9 million children are out-of-school and 12 million face learning disruptions

Approximately 6.9 million girls and boys, one in three school-aged children, do not go to school in Sudan, and a further 12 million will have their school years heavily interrupted by a lack of sufficient teachers, infrastructure, and an enabling learning environment to make them reach their full potential.

School is more than just a learning space for children. Beyond reading, writing, and mathematics, children learn social and emotional skills, play in a safe environment, and have access to other critical services. Schools protect children from the physical dangers around them – including abuse, exploitation, and recruitment into armed groups. And they offer psychosocial support, giving children stability and structure in a volatile environment. For many children in Sudan, education is lifesaving!

With the exacerbating socio-economic situation, recurring conflicts, and prolonged COVID-19 school closures, once children drop out of school, the chances of girls and boys returning to school are low. Girls are especially vulnerable: evidence suggests that the economic crisis is deepening gender inequalities in Sudan, especially among adolescent girls.

To prevent further learning loss, reopening of schools, and offering alternative education opportunities for children who missed many years of school is a top priority.

“Without an ambitious and exerted focus to address these crucial issues, more girls and boys will lose their childhoods to labour, marriage, and other rights violations.” Arshad Malik - Country Director - Save the Children in Sudan.

Moreover, globally, due to the worst shock to education and learning in recorded history, learning poverty has increased by a third in low- and middle-income countries. This generation of students now risks losing US$21 trillion in potential lifetime earnings in present value, or the equivalent of 17 per cent of today’s global GDP.

“No country can afford to have one-third of its school-age children with no basic literacy, numeracy, or digital skills. Education is not just a right – it’s also a lifeline,” says Mandeep O’Brien - UNICEF Representative in Sudan.

Without urgent action, the learning crisis in Sudan will become a generational catastrophe.

UNICEF and Save the Children – as co-leads of the international education cluster in Sudan – call on the Government of Sudan to reopen schools as soon as possible, keep the schools open for the entire academic year, ensure no schools are occupied by armed actors, and facilitate additional alternative education opportunities to make sure no child is left behind. We call on all stakeholders – foremost the Government – to ensure sufficient funding for education is available, including for teacher salaries and school feeding programmes.

Education is a win-win investment: Improving access to and quality of education is key for the development of children and countries.

Link to original Joint Statement here

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Sudan: Programme Presence - Who does What & Where (3Ws) (As of June 2022)

Sudan - Programme Presence (3Ws) A4 June 2022-1

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Sudan Floods: People and Areas Affected (as of 31 August 2022)

Sudan Floods: People and Areas Affected (31 August 2022)

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Inter-communal Conflicts and Armed Attacks (January - August 2022)

Sudan Inter-communal Conflicts and Armed Attacks (January - August 2022) A4

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IPC Blue Nile graph

The number of acutely food insecure people in Blue Nile State almost triples since 2019

This brief update is part of the OCHA Sudan series about Key Facts and Figures on Humanitarian Needs and Response in Sudan, focusing on Blue Nile State.

While Blue Nile has recently seen a wave of inter-communal violence that has displaced an estimated 31,000 people who need urgent support, they join an existing population of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Blue Nile, where 37 per cent of the overall population fall under acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3+) category.

The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) latest update and analysis on food security in Sudan released in June 2022 showed significant increases in food assistance needs besides increases in commodity prices, a reduced harvest, and continued conflict, with acute food insecurity in Sudan continuing to worsen rapidly. According to the IPC, the number of people experiencing acute food insecurity levels (IPC Phase 3+) in Blue Nile increased almost three-fold from about 175,300 people in 2019 to 502,700 people for the period between June and September 2022, which is the lean season in the country. Moreover, the share of the total population of the state going through acute food insecurity increased from 15 per cent in 2019 to 37 per cent in 2022, meaning that one out of every three people in Blue Nile is acutely food insecure during June -September 2022.

According to the 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO), the population of Blue Nile State is about 1.3 million and Humanitarian Response Plan partners reached 562,643 of them with humanitarian assistance (including food and livelihoods support) during January-March 2022. This is equivalent to 42 per cent of all the people in Blue Nile State or almost every second person. For more information on HRP response please see the Sudan: Periodic Monitoring Report (January - March 2022)

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