Situation Report
Flash Update
Flash 02 SDN WD ND-Jabal-Moon Conflict FU Map 20211205 3

SUDAN: Inter-communal conflict — Jebel Moon, West Darfur Flash Update No. 02 (6 December 2021)


  • People displaced following fighting between nomads and farmers in Jebel Moon locality, West Darfur.

  • People have fled to the mountains into neighbouring states and have crossed the border into Chad.

  • At least 50 people were killed, 6,655 people were displaced, 2,261 people fled to Chad, and 594 houses were burned and looted.

  • Inter-agency teams visited 32 affected villages to assess needs.

  • Priorities needs identified include education, food, health, sanitation and hygiene, shelter, non-food items, protection, and water.

  • Humanitarians have distributed assistance to those affected by the conflict.


On 20 November, inter-communal clashes escalated between nomads and farmers from the Misseriya Jebel tribe in Khazan-kujuk village (20km east of Sileia) in West Darfur’s Jebel Moon locality. According to the data collected during the inter-agency assessment that took place between 29 November and 2 December, 6,655 people (1,331 households) have been displaced to Hijeilija and Selea villages in Jebel Moon locality, as well as Werywery village in Kulbus locality, Worof village in Sirba locality and Saraf Omra in North Darfur, while others have crossed the border into Chad. According to UNHCR 2,261 people have crossed into Chad as of 30 November. Further verification and discussions are taking place to verify the number of people displaced and in need of humanitarian assistance.

The situation in the area remains tense and unpredictable. People outside Sileia, the main town that provides basic services to the whole locality, cannot currently access the town due to tensions and security concerns. Consequently, people do not have access to health care as mobile facilities that serve the rural areas are no longer operating. Moreover, people lack access to the primary market in Sileia, the main source of basic supplies in Jebel Moon.

An estimated 68,500 people live in Jebel Moon locality, and more than 46,600 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). Over 6,800 people in Jebel Moon are in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.


Between 29 November and 2 December, and after discussions with local authorities, an inter-agency assessment took place in 32 villages/damras (small pastoralist villages) to determine the needs and distribute humanitarian supplies to the communities affected by the conflict. The team assessed villages and areas where people fled to (including mountain areas), return villages, and nomad settlements that reportedly were hosting internally displaced persons (IDPs) or had been affected by looting and burning. The assessment teams discussed the situation and humanitarian needs with affected women and men, representatives of health, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and agriculture technical departments, and local and native authorities.

The assessment was composed of teams representing Shelter/Non-Food Items (S/NFIs), Health and Nutrition, Food Security and Livelihoods, WASH, Education, and Protection sectors. Initial findings of the assessment highlighted education, food, health, sanitation and hygiene, S/NFIs, protection, and water– including monitoring – as the most urgent needs.

The needs assessment mission took supplies to deliver immediate humanitarian response. A total of 1,600 full NFI kits were distributed to people affected in Gosmino, Um Sayala, Amarjadeed, and the IDP communities in the villages of Norani, Kendere, and Jokhana. In addition, 2,000 dignity kits, 200 mosquito nets, and five sexually transmitted infection (STI) kits for case management of rape (CMR) treatment were distributed. Additionally, some basic medical and surgical supplies were also delivered to Selea. Humanitarian partners also plan to assist people affected in areas outside Sileia town and the Jebel Moon area—mainly with health, WASH, education, and protection support.


For more information, please contact:

Sofie Karlsson, Head of Communications and Analysis, OCHA Sudan,, Mob: +249 (0)912 174 456




Situation Report


  • COVID-19 reportedly on the rise in Khartoum, Aj Jazirah and River Nile states
  • Sudan Humanitarian Fund supports Alight refugee response in eastern Sudan
  • Food prices remain high despite the start of the harvest season, says the latest update from FEWS NET
  • The 2021/2022 agricultural season is expected to be average to above average, according to a recent mid-season assessment
  • Child labour is common among forcibly displaced and host communities in East Darfur and West Kordofan, says an ILO assessment




Situation Report

Key Figures

severely food-insecure people
people targeted for assistance in 2021
internally displaced people
total people who contracted COVID-19
COVID-19-related deaths
Ethiopian refugees in the east & Blue Nile
People reached with aid (Jan-June 2021)
people affected by floods
houses destroyed
houses damaged




Situation Report






Paola Emerson

Head of Office for OCHA Sudan

Sofie Karlsson

Head, Communications

James Steel

Head, Information Management

Alimbek Tashtankulov

Public Information Officer


Situation Report
Emergency Response
COVID-19-vaccines-arrive-in-Khartoum WHO
COVID-19 vaccines arrive in Khartoum ©WHO

COVID-19 on the rise in Khartoum, Aj Jazirah and River Nile

There is a significant increase in the incidence of COVID-19 in Khartoum, Aj Jazirah and River Nile states based on available data received by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 25 October. WHO received reports that public isolation centers in Khartoum, River Nile and Aj Jazirah have bed occupancy rates of above 90 per cent in the past few weeks. There are reported shortages of oxygen, essential medicines, trained staff and lack of funds to cover running and operational costs. Additional capacities to provide care for moderate and severe patients are limited and need to be scaled up in these states to prevent further transmission.

Health partners support COVID-19 activities in Blue Nile, Khartoum, Red Sea, and South Darfur states, and additional support by health partners is being requested by health authorities in the most affected states.

WHO provided over the last two weeks 340 oxygen cylinders to prevent stock outs during the period of civil unrest, 15 ambulances to scale up the referral system, personal protection equipment (PPEs) and other medical supplies. A team of surveillance, emergency and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) staff will provide support at isolation centers in River Nile State.

Disease surveillance challenges

The disease surveillance systems are severely affected by a lack of access to communication networks, internet connections and the absence of key civil staff due to the civil disobedience. There are challenges to provide reliable updates on the epidemiological situation of diseases with outbreak potential.

Suspected dengue cases reportedly increased significantly in six states, including Kassala, North Darfur, North Kordofan, River Nile, West Kordofan and West Darfur. As of 21 November, 229 suspected cases, including five deaths, were reported from these states. Outbreak response measures are affected by the ongoing crisis and may lead to a further increase of cases in the near future.

Trauma care

Since 25 October, more than 500 people were injured following demonstrations and protests in Khartoum, with 41 deaths reported, according to the Central Doctors’ Committee. Not all injured are seeking hospital care and the figures might be underreported. Most of the casualties are in Khartoum where the biggest protests took place. WHO delivered dressings and trauma supplies for 900 patients, and assessed the emergency capacities in 15 hospitals in Khartoum. WHO is preparing trainings in case management, basic life support, mass casualty and COVID-19 case management in coordination with other health partners and in response to the high staff turnover in public health facilities, which is leading to a lack of trained staff. Trauma supplies for up to 3,000 trauma patients are ready to be delivered by air from Dubai and are awaiting the finalisation of importation procedures.

The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has also delivered emergency medical assistance to hospitals in Khartoum to support medical needs. The delivery included two emergency health kits to “Ibrahim Malik” and “Al-Mualim” hospitals in Khartoum. The kits cover basic medical needs for up to 40,000 patients over three months.

Moreover, UNICEF delivered advanced emergency health kits known as supplementary kits to nine hospitals in Khartoum including Al-Arabaeen, Ibrahim Malik, Al-Tamayouz, Royal Care and Sharg Al-Neel hospitals.

For more information on UNICEF deliveries please see the UNICEF report here




Situation Report
Baby Galal and her family at Tundaydbah refugee settlement in Western Sudan

Alive and thriving, thanks to the Sudan Humanitarian Fund

Galal* is a healthy 1-year-old baby boy who loves to laugh. He is alive and thriving today with the help of the Alight programmes funded by the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) and other donors in eastern Sudan.

Galal’s mother brought him and his 10-year-old sister to the Tunaydbah refugee settlement in eastern Sudan in November 2020 after a day-long trek from Ethiopia’s Tigray region. He was emaciated, underweight and lethargic. His mother suffered from liver cancer and was unable to properly care for him. She passed away three weeks after they arrived at the camp, leaving Galal in the care of his sister.

Immediately, Alight protection workers supported by SHF funds identified the two children for care and assistance. They placed them with families in the settlement. Galal required more care than the families could provide and his sister did not fit in with the temporary foster family. They ended up living on their own.

Baby Galal recovers at Alight clinic

At the same time, Galal’s condition was worsening. He was suffering from severe diarrhoea complicated by malnutrition. With medical care delayed, he developed life-threatening shock due to severe dehydration.

The Alight medical team provided the immediate medical attention Galal required to treat moderate acute malnutrition. With a few more days in a primary healthcare centre funded by the SHF, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, his condition and health improved.

Nationwide, the focus by the government authorities and humanitarian organizations on child and maternal health have helped reduce infant mortality from 68 deaths per 1,000 births in 2000 to 52 deaths in 2014; and under-five child mortality from 104 to 68 for the same period. More progress is still needed, however, especially regarding nutrition, as more than half of child deaths result from malnutrition.

Meanwhile, Alight’s protection team continued to search for a family or relative to take care of Galal and his sister. In coordination with Sudan’s Commission of Refugees, Galal’s aunt was moved from the Hamdayet border reception camp and reunited with the children in Tunaydbah.

“They all are doing very well now. Galal was discharged and I follow up his case regularly,” said Dr. Oscar Fudalan, Acting Health Manager in Gedaref. “It is all part of the life-saving work we do, thanks to all our partners.”

In 2020, 10 per cent of SHF funding was allocated to nutrition activities, targeting more than 400,000 people. This trend continued in 2021, with US$3 million out of a total of $33 million allocated to nutrition to date.

The Sudan Humanitarian Fund is a country-based pooled fund managed by OCHA Sudan under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It collects donor contributions to make timely funding directly available to humanitarian partners working on the ground so they can deliver effective fit for purpose life-saving and life-sustaining assistance and protection to the most vulnerable people in need.

For more on SHF and how to donate, please see the link.

This story has also been published on the UN OCHA website.

* Baby Galal’s name has been changed to protect his privacy.




Situation Report
Projected food security outcomes, October 2021 to January 2022

Food prices high despite start of the harvest – FEWS NET

FEWS NET reported in its latest update on Sudan that staple food prices remained extremely high in October, the start of the harvest season in the country. The high prices are driven by seasonally reduced market supplies, increased demand, high production and transportation costs, and the shortage and high cost of imported wheat that has been exacerbated by the closure of the main ports and highway in the Red Sea State.

Staple food prices are 60-90 per cent higher than the same period last year and 360-430 per cent above the five-year average. Although the harvest will likely result in some seasonal price declines, staple food prices will likely remain 200-350 per cent above the five-year average through the beginning of the next lean season in April/May 2022, according to FEWS NET. Between October 2021 and February 2022, about six million people are expected to experience acute food insecurity across the country, according to the most recent Integrated Food Security Phase classification report issued in May 2021.

Emergency food assistance needs in October 2021 remain above the five-year average needs level (calculated by averaging needs for 2016-2020), driven by political instability, above-average food prices, reduced household purchasing power, as well as the impact of conflict, tribal clashes, and protracted displacement in parts of Darfur, Kordofan, and Red Sea states. Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes are likely among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in areas under the control of non-state armed groups in South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Jebel Mara;; households recently affected by tribal clashes in North Darfur; urban poor households; and the most vulnerable poor households in parts of North Darfur, North Kordofan, and Red Sea states who are affected by low food stocks and poor purchasing power due to limited access to income and high food and non-food prices.

For more information, please see the FEWS NET Food Security Outlook for Sudan




Situation Report
Sorghum plantation in Sudan

Above to above average agricultural season expected according to the mid-season agricultural assessment

Sudan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Food Security Technical Secretariat (FSTS)—with support from the UN, humanitarian partners and donors—carried out its annual mid-season assessment for the 2021/2022 agricultural season between 5-16 September to identify the main factors affecting the agricultural situation in the production areas across 14 States in Sudan. According to the findings, the agricultural season is expected to be average to above average.

Five core teams visited the main summer crop producing areas in 14 states and cross-checked official estimates by conducting extensive field inspections, rapid case studies with sample farmers, and interviews with herders and traders.

The area expected to be planted for season 2021/2022 will be above average by about 6 per cent, and down compared to last year by 8 per cent.

At the national and sub-national level, the teams collected the latest available information and data on rainfall amounts and distribution, vegetation cover, crop protection campaigns, cereal reserve stocks and prices of the main crops and livestock. Periodic food security reports were reviewed, and the main socio-economic indicators were provided by the Central Bank of Sudan, the Agricultural Bank of Sudan, the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Strategic Reserve Corporation.

Rainfall data was obtained from the Sudan Meteorological Authority and from other sources in the field. Satellite imageries were used to review the evolution of vegetation cover over the course of the year.

COVID-19-related restrictions were relaxed in the first quarter of 2021 and based on various reports from FSTS and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there has been no significant direct impact of the waves of COVID-19 on the 2021/2022 summer agricultural season.

For more information and details, see the report here




Situation Report
WFP local food basket - Sep 2021

Local food basket price increases – WFP Market Monitor

A significant increase in the prices of commodities and services has been reported during September despite a decrease in the inflation rate, according to the September 2021 WFP Market Monitor. Inflation has decreased in September 2021 (365.82 per cent) compared to 387.56 per cent in August 2021. However, the monthly percentage change in consumer price index (CPI) was 15.55 per cent compared to 6.52 per cent in August, which has resulted in the increase in the prices of commodities and services.

As a result, the average cost of the WFP local food basket (LFB) increased to SDG 232.9 (about US$0.53) in September compared SDG 221.28 ($0.50) in August 2021. On the other hand, there was slight increase in the average daily casual labour wage rate (SDG 1,304), an increase of 4 per cent compared to August 2021. This is 236 per cent higher compared to the same period last year.

The sustained food insecurity and economic crisis may continue even after the main summer harvest season between November 2021 and February 2022, as the lifting of fuel subsidies and free exchange policy has pushed production costs up more than 3 to 4 times compared to previous season, which is expected to increase the prices of crops and foods next year.

For more information on market prices, please see the September 2021 WFP Sudan Market Monitor here




Situation Report
A young boy on a donkey cart in Al Meriam West Kordofan Photo ©Caroline Knook
A young boy on a donkey cart in Al Meriam West Kordofan (Photo ©Caroline Knook)

Child labour among forcibly displaced and host communities in East Darfur and West Kordofan - ILO

An assessment and research carried out by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in January 2021 found that children’s work and child labour are very common occurrences among forcibly displaced and host communities in East Darfur and West Kordofan. Children start working young, and often support family businesses, household production, or are employed by other community members that their parents know.

While most children continue to attend school, their schoolwork is often negatively impacted by working long hours, carrying heavy loads in the heat and dust. Besides contradicting laws and policies that govern child labour, capacity in the enforcing government bodies is low, and they are unable to act unless a case is reported to them directly. Other factors that contribute to child labour include widespread poverty, limited access to basic services and social protection services, displacement, informality of employment agreements of children, and persisting social norms and attitudes. All these factors should be addressed in order to successfully reduce and eradicate child labour in the target communities, the ILO report said.

In support of the Partnership for improving prospects for host communities and forcibly displaced persons (PROSPECTS), a programme that ILO is implementing with United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the World Bank, supported by the Kingdom of the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Consilient conducted a Child Labour Assessment in Sudan. The assessment aimed to:

  1. provide evidence on the magnitude of children’s work and child labour in forcibly displaced persons (FPD) and host communities (HC) in West Kordofan and East Darfur;

  2. identify what are the main factors that push children into child labour, and what are those that prevent children from working;

  3. assess gender differences with regard to children’s activities; and

  4. provide recommendations on how to decrease, eliminate and prevent child labour in HCs and FDP communities.

To best answer these research objectives, Consilient, a research and analysis organisation, conducted 1,172 household surveys, 64 key informant interviews, and 32 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders and community members in Khartoum, East Darfur (Ed-Daein, Assalaya and El Nimir Camp), and West Kordofan (El Fula, Kharasana/Keilak, and Al Meiram). Data collection for this assessment was completed in January 2021.

For more information, please see the assessment report here




Situation Report

UNHAS operations in Sudan

UNHAS Operations in Sudan

The UN Humanitarian Air Service provides air transport to humanitarian and development workers to reach vulnerable communities in the most remote places across Sudan.




Situation Report
River-protecting embankments under construction in Kassala State. UNDP Sudan/Lancelot Ayo Lake
River-protecting embankments under construction in Kassala State. UNDP Sudan/Lancelot Ayo Lake

Investing in flood-prevention infrastructure in Kassala City – UNDP

In 2020, Sudan was hit by severe floods, with almost 175,000 homes destroyed or damaged. Kassala was particularly impacted, prompting the UN Development Programme (UNDP) to begin flood prevention interventions.

As part of its activities, UNDP has rehabilitated five flood protection embankments and river spurs along the Gash River, repaired a river flood monitoring station for flood early warning, and upgraded the Flood Early Warning Centre in Kassala State.

The catastrophic flooding in 2020 caused widespread damage across Sudan, including in Kassala State, and its capital Kassala City, which is bisected by the Gash River.

To help prevent a repeat of the catastrophic damage, UNDP has invested in flood protection construction works along the river, including four flood protection river spurs and one embankment on the Gash. The project saw more than 690 tons of earth moved, and 1700 m³ of embankments and spurs constructed, helping divert direct water flows, protect riverbanks from erosion and further flood damage, and decrease impacts of future rainy seasons.

A river water level monitoring station has also been repaired on the river, alongside Kassala town’s main bridge, providing improved early warnings in case of rising water levels.

“These investments will protect lives, livelihoods and assets,” said Trond Husby, UNDP Sudan’s Crisis Coordinator, “and form part of our broader efforts to support vulnerable communities and ensure longer-term solutions to Sudan’s reoccurring challenges.”

“This is particularly critical in Kassala, with limited infrastructure and high levels of displaced people, all potential risks to stability in the area.”

Supporting local capabilities to prepare and respond to crisis events, UNDP has also assisted state crisis management committees, and Kassala State’s Flood Early Warning Centre, with the center receiving new equipment, and a dedicated UNDP staff member to support flood preparedness and analyze flood/natural hazard data for decision making and early action.

“What we’re doing in terms of flood preparedness is important because it not only protects Kassala city from floods but also surrounding towns,” said Eltayeb Awadelkrim, the UNDP staff in the Centre. “This allows us to prepare better for the next rainy season through all the data we’re collecting and analyzing.”

“Our work on the Gash River is particularly important because a lot of surrounding towns get their water supply from the river as well as primary source of water for Al Gash Agricultural Scheme, Kassala’s largest agricultural scheme.”

These efforts form part of UNDP’s response to crises in Sudan’s eastern states, with more than USD 2m of support provided to date – including trials of mechanized production of brick-like stabilized soil blocks (SSBs) to easily raise housing foundations above usual flood levels, and construction of demonstration ‘flood-resilient’ homes.

Read more: Introducing flood-resilience technologies amid Sudan’s rainy season




Situation Report
Hajir Ahmed Hassan, a psychologist with World Relief, reviews drawings made by displaced children as part of psychotherapy in Ag Geneina town, West Darfur, Sudan. © OCHA/Lilian Nduta

Sudan Humanitarian Fund project helps children affected by conflict

At a makeshift health clinic set up alongside a road in Ag Geneina, a town in West Darfur, Sudan, several young girls sketch flowers, while the young boys in the group draw weapons and make mud moulds of military vehicles.

“I have been encouraging them to make drawings from happier memories before the conflict that led to their displacement,” says Hajir Ahmed Hassan, a psychologist who works in one of the child-friendly clinics in the area managed by the non-governmental organization (NGO) World Relief through a grant from the OCHA-managed Sudan Humanitarian Fund. “The boys associate soldiers with power, having experienced conflict first-hand,” she explains.

The drawing activities serve as therapy to help the children overcome psychological trauma as a result of the conflict in West Darfur.

All the children who participate in the activities come from displaced families. Four schools in Ag Geneina are currently closed because they are occupied by displaced people. The town currently has 71 gathering sites for internally displaced people.

The clinic where Hajir works provides health, nutrition and psychosocial support to children with severe and moderate acute malnutrition, as well as to pregnant and lactating women with moderate acute malnutrition.

Every morning, Hajir spends two hours with more than 30 children in makeshift structures or under the shade of large trees to address psychosocial issues arising from their displacement and current circumstances. She also engages with the children in recreational activities as part of therapy services.

When conflict broke out in West Darfur in January 2021, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund released US$300,0000 through its Emergency Rapid Response Mechanism within a week, and an additional $599,000 from its Reserve for Emergencies within three weeks, to respond to rising humanitarian needs.

The Fund has provided a total of $1.3 million for response activities in West Darfur to World Relief and Save the Children, while the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) provided an additional $5 million in January of this year to various partners.

With its share of the funds, World Relief has provided health, nutrition and psychosocial support through two fixed health facilities and nine temporary health clinics over the past eight months. Among the services provided include trucking clean water to 18 gathering sites for internally displaced people; installing water tanks; and distributing jerry cans to vulnerable households.

World Relief also built 18 communal latrines with handwashing facilities and carried out 28 hygiene promotion and environmental safety sessions in Ag Geneina. This past June, the NGO also added recreational activities and counselling related to general protection and gender-based violence. This assistance reached 58,344 internally displaced people, comprising 12,752 men, 13,335 women, 15,669 boys and 16,588 girls.

The Sudan Humanitarian Fund is a country-based pooled fund managed by OCHA Sudan under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It collects donor contributions to make funding directly available to humanitarian partners working on the ground so they can deliver timely and effective life-saving assistance and protection to the most vulnerable people in need.




Situation Report
Emergency Response
Floods affected-locality-2021
States affected by floods

Sudan Floods Update

Key Figures (as of 29 September 2021)

  • Number of People Affected: 314,547

  • Number of homes destroyed: 15,541

  • Number of homes damaged: 46,546

Heavy rains and flash floods affected about 314,500 people across the country as of 29 September 2021, overwhelming the local response capacity. More than 15,000 homes were destroyed, over 46,000 homes were damaged, and an unconfirmed number of public infrastructure facilities and farmlands have been affected. Heavy rain and flooding have been reported in 14 out of 18 states, including Blue Nile, Gedaref, Aj Jazirah, Khartoum, North Kordofan, Northern, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan and White Nile River Nile. Aj Jazirah, South Darfur, Gedaref and West Darfur are the most affected states. Nile River water levels have been rising since mid-July and currently Nile River water levels have surpassed flooding levels at the Khartoum station (Khartoum State), Ed Deim station (Blue Nile State), and at the Atbara and Shendi stations in River Nile State. The rainy season in Sudan is usually from June to September.

The Government, led by the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), and humanitarian partners are providing life-saving assistance to people affected. Close to 183,000 people were reached with various types of humanitarian assistance in the 14 flood-affected states, including food, shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition aid. Flood preparedness activities that were carried out earlier this year have paid off in terms of flood impact.

However, prepositioned relief items are being depleted and there is an urgent need to replenish stocks. The UN and humanitarian partners estimate that a pipeline break for the remaining months of 2021 could mean that more than 330,000 people would not receive adequate WASH support, 290,000 would be left out in the shelter response, and over a quarter of a million people would be deprived of health supplies and services due to the looming stock gap.

Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) Support

In support of the flood response, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has allocated US$7.7 million to 14 NGOs in 15 states to finance swift humanitarian response when needed. In addition, some $7 million has been allocated to four UN agencies for the procurement of emergency stocks. Another $3.5 million is available for floods rapid response activities.

2020 Floods

In 2020, almost 900,000 people across 18 states were affected in the worst flooding in the country in 100 years. Over 140 people died, 94,000 homes were destroyed, and 83,000 homes were damaged. An estimated 2.2 million hectares of agricultural land was flooded, representing 26.8 per cent of cultivated areas in 15 assessed states. Flash floods submerged villages and caused immense damage to infrastructure, including dams, roads, bridges and highways. Due to unreliable drainage systems, there was stagnant water in different locations, posing a risk to health outbreaks as pools of water become breeding grounds for water-borne and vector-borne diseases such as cholera, dengue fever, rift valley fever, and chikungunya. Hygiene and sanitary levels plummeted due to flooded latrines and contaminated water supplies, preventing people from exercising necessary COVID-19 prevention measures.

Helpful Resources

For more data on the floods in Sudan see the OCHA Sudan Floods Dashboard: Sudan Floods: People & Areas Affected

Previous Flash updates

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 14 (23 September 2021)

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 13 (16 September 2021)

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 12 (9 September 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 11 (8 September 2021) [EN]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 10 (2 September 2021) [EN]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 09 (24 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 08 (19 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 07 (18 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 06 (12 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 05 (9 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 04 (05 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 03 (29 July 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 02 (27 July 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 01 (23 July 2021) [EN]




Situation Report
Preparing the land to plant the trees (Photo Credit: UNEP)

Community forests to fight climate change and build community resilience in North Darfur - The story of Shadia

In commemoration of World Humanitarian Day this year we demand climate action for the people who need it most. Time has run out and urgent action is needed to protect people and save the most vulnerable from climate disaster. #TheHumanRace

“The climate emergency is a race we are losing, but it is a race that we can win” – Antonio Guterres, United Nations Secretary-General.

Let us hear the story of Shadia, a housewife, and the women-led community forest program her village established with the help of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project.

With climate change in North Darfur, rainfall has been erratic, and temperatures are rising, leading to food shortages and conflict as farmers and pastoralists compete for scarce natural resources. This put great pressure on local environments where they cut down trees for firewood, reducing forest and plant cover.

Under the UNEP Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project in North Darfur, forestry and agro-forestry activities have been introduced, promoted, and spread to solve environmental problems and to benefit communities. This activity is considered one of the innovative, nature-based solutions to tackle environmental issues in rural areas.

Last year, more than 60,000 seedlings of native tree varieties (out of 150,000 planned) have been transplanted in different villages as community forests and shelterbelts (a line of trees or shrubs planted to protect an area from strong winds and the erosion they cause) by UNEP, the international NGO Practical Action and community-based networks in collaboration with the Forest National Corporation (FNC) in El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur.

Allah Maragh village is about 15 km from El Fasher, and is one of the villages where 2,000 seedlings were transplanted for a community forest. Communities in the village had received extensive training on planting site preparation, seedling spacing by species, water harvesting, and irrigation techniques.

The 38-year-old Shadia Abdelkreem Adam, a wife who takes care of her husband's five children, said "When I was 10 years old, my family used to get extra food, fodders, local medicines, wood, fuelwood from the forest that surrounded our village. But there are no trees and no forests as a result of deforestation and conflict." Shadia explained that the forestation in her village was a women-led initiative from start to end. She said, "In 2015, the project's team conducted a participatory planning session with our communities to identify the village priorities and one of them was the establishment of a community forest. In the same year, a forest committee was formed to lead and manage all future activities. The committee includes an equal number of women and men, but women have played a prominent role in the success of all activities until date. We received extensive training and successfully transplanted different species of trees to kick start our new community forest before the end of 2015. Last year, more seedlings were transplanted."

The species of seedlings were selected by communities with the support of Practical Action and FNC. They included Grewia tenax, Hashab (Acacia Senegal), Katir (Acacia mellifera), Nabag (Ziziphus spina-christi), and Neem (Azadirachta indica). These trees were planted in an area of nine feddans (3.78 hectares).

Shadia concluded by saying, "It's been more than five years since we transplanted the seedlings, you can now see the trees are growing, with them the hope is growing inside us. Our forest is bringing our communities together, it protected our village from wind, it provides shade for everyone, community leaders, women groups, children, and even animals. Now, all meetings are taking place under the shade of these trees and vital decisions are taken there as well. Moreover, this forest opened an opportunity for women to be organized and to form a small saving group, which I'm personally benefiting from. More importantly in 2021 we are expecting high production of Gum Arabic from the tree. If that happens, the forest committee members - including me - will sell the products and generate money to support our village and communities."

The community forest has environmental benefits including improved biodiversity; reduced soil erosion; sand dunes fixation; improved water availability; climate change adaptation; climate change mitigation; wind speed reduction; soil fertility enhancement; evapotranspiration reduction; and increasing rainfall rate.

We asked Shadia to send a message, and she said, "My message to my community, the people of Sudan and everyone in the world, please plant more trees, protect the ones existing, and take care of them the same way you are taking care of your children and family."

Shadia and her community have proved that community-based forest management approaches can generate positive environmental and social outcomes. This in turn will help address other issues such as climate change and poverty.

The Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project is funded by the European Union (EU) and implemented UNEP in partnership with the Government of Sudan, and the international NGO Practical Action.




Situation Report
Emergency Response
Registration of Ethiopian Refugees in Um Rakuba UNHCR Ahmed Kwarte
Registration of Ethiopian Refugees in Um Rakuba (UNHCR/Ahmed Kwarte)

UNHCR and partners revise Ethiopian Refugee Response Plan for Sudan

As refugees from Ethiopia’s Tigray region continue to seek refuge in Sudan, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and partners have revised the Sudan Refugee influx from Ethiopia Response Plan that was launched in November 2020. The revised plan expands the timeframe of the plan to 31 December 2021 and incorporates flood preparedness and response costs and costs for the response in Blue Nile State. The financial requirement has increased by US $33 million bringing the total cost of the plan to about $182 million while the planning figure is for 120,000 refugee arrivals until the end of the year. The plan is 47 per cent funded as of 3o June, according to the latest Ethiopian Emergency Situation - Funding Update.


In November 2020, conflict in Ethiopia’s Tigray region led to the influx of tens of thousands of Ethiopian refugees into eastern Sudan. Refugees were arriving into Kassala and Gedaref states at an average rate of over 2,700 people a day.

UNHCR teams on the ground are working with the Sudanese Commissioner for Refugees (COR), local authorities and partners to monitor and mobilize resources to provide life-saving assistance such as including shelter, food, water, sanitation, health and education to thousands of refugees fleeing conflict in Tigray.

With the onset of the rainy season, major storms with heavy winds have caused damages to shelter and infrastructure in the two settlements – Um Rakuba and Tunaydbah. UNHCR and partners are in a race against time and nature as storms may intensify and floods worsen in the coming weeks and are calling for additional support which will allow for infrastructure improvements to the camps, and construction of more durable traditional shelters for families living in the camps. In addition, UNHCR and partners are scaling up support in other critical sectors such as water, sanitation, protection and health, constructing and rehabilitating roads to ensure access throughout the rainy season, and digging drainage systems to reduce the flooding risks.

Over 46,000 Ethiopian refugees from Tigray have been biometric registered in eastern Sudan as of 1st July 2021. In Blue Nile State, about 7,400 Ethiopian refugees have arrived from the Benishangul Gumuz region fleeing ethnic conflict and also require assistance.

As of July 2021, Sudan hosts over 1.1 million refugees from South Sudan, Eritrea, Central African Republic, Ethiopia and other countries. The country faces multiple challenges, including over 300 per cent annual inflation and fuel shortages. According to the latest International Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report food insecurity levels are the highest ever recorded in Sudan. The 2021 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) estimates that over 13.4 million people need assistance, including over one million refugees.

For more information read the revised plan: Inter-Agency Refugee Emergency Response Plan - Sudan: Refugee Influx from Ethiopia, November 2020 to December 2021 (Revision, May 2021)




Situation Report
IDP-women-farmers-harvest-the-Okra-they-planted-in-Azaza-village-Blue-Nile-State FAO 2021
IDP women farmers harvest their crops in Blue Nile State (@FAO/Amani Muawia)

High prices of agricultural supplies may affect cropping season – FAO

Despite favourable projections for this year’s farming season, soaring prices of agricultural supplies will likely affect planted areas and crop yields. This is due to due to sustained inflation and dwindling foreign currency reserves that are hampering imports. In addition, the full removal of fuel subsidies in June has constrained farmers’ access to fuel, affecting the semi-mechanized and irrigated sectors, which account on average for about half of the aggregate cereal output.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said in its newly released GIEWS country update for Sudan that the planting of 2021 crops, for harvest from October, is well underway. The June-September rainy season is characterized by an early onset at the beginning of May.

Rainfall has continued at above-average levels. In mid-June satellite estimates indicated cumulative rainfall surpluses over most cropping areas. According to the latest Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF) weather forecasts, seasonal rains are expected to be above average across the country. If these forecasts materialize and the distribution of rains is favourable, the abundant precipitation will boost crop yields. However, there will be a heightened risk of flooding, especially in low-lying and riverine areas alongside the River Nile and its tributaries.

Cereal prices at exceptionally high levels

Food prices are expected to rise and availability and access to food continues to be limited due to COVID-19 containment measures and the impact of the 2020 floods. This will worsen the food security of Sudanese farmers, particularly smallholders and vulnerable households who cannot afford to purchase food for their families or agricultural supplies needed to resume farming. About 58 per cent of the population is involved in the agricultural sector in Sudan.

Substantial devaluation of the Sudanese Pound from SDG 55/USD to SDG 375/USD in late February reduced the gap between the official and parallel market exchange rates, easing inflationary pressures. It caused prices of sorghum and millet to decline in some markets by up to 15 per cent between February and April (FAO Food Price Monitoring and Analysis bulletin). Subsequently, prices resumed their upward trend, which started in late 2017, increasing by 5-15 per cent in May as the local currency further depreciated in the parallel market from SDG 393/USD in April to SDG 436/USD in May. Prices of wheat, mostly imported, levelled off in April and May in some markets as local harvests in March increased market availability. Prices of cereals in May were exceptionally high—about double the price of last year—mainly due to a weak local currency and soaring prices of fuel and agricultural supplies, which inflated production and transportation costs.

Food security situation affected by multiple shocks

According to the results of the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis, about 9.8 million people (21 per cent of the analyzed population in the survey) are estimated to be severely food insecure for the period June-September 2021. This figure includes about 7.1 million people in crisis situation (IPC Phase 3) and 2.7 million people in emergency levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 4). While the total number of severely food insecure people is similar to the estimate of food insecure people in 2020, the number of people estimated to be in the emergency phase is more than 20 per cent higher, indicating an increase in severity of food insecurity.

The main drivers are macro-economic challenges resulting in rampant food and non-food inflation, the lingering impact of the 2020 widespread floods on livelihoods and the escalation of inter-communal violence in western Greater Darfur Region and in eastern South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Blue Nile states. So far, about 22 per cent of the localities affected by the devastating impact of the 2020 floods have received assistance from the government and humanitarian actors, according to FAO. Further assistance is urgently needed, and additional funds are required to maintain livelihood interventions and provide necessary emergency and recovery support.

The highest prevalence of food insecurity is reported in East, North and West Darfur, in Blue Nile and in North and South Kordofan states, where the macro-economic challenges are compounded by inter-communal violence. In these areas, between 25 and 30 per cent of the population is estimated to be severely food insecure. In addition, 18 per cent of the population of Khartoum State is estimated to face food insecurity, 3 per cent more than the same period of the previous year. Humanitarian needs are particularly high for IDPs, estimated at 2.55 million people, and for 1.1 million refugees, including 793 000 people from South Sudan and 45,000 people from the conflict-affected Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

Humanitarian organizations are advocating for early and flexible funding as the economic crisis and inflation are increasing the number of people in need and the severity of their situation.




Situation Report
Bab Al-Ginan with her two goats (Ahmed Amin Ahmed, UN Women)
Bab Al-Ginan with her two goats (Ahmed Amin Ahmed, UN Women)

At Heaven’s Doors – the story of Bab Al-Ginan

In an effort to ensure women’s needs and concerns are adequately addressed and that they have access to the resources and opportunities they need, UN Women has been focussing on involving women in decision-making and negotiation.

Bab Al-Ginan Mohamed Ishag Adam is a 42-year-old widow from Menwashi village in Mershing locality, South Darfur State. She lost her husband years ago in one of the many conflicts that the Darfur region has witnessed over the past 18 years.

Over 75 per cent of farmers in Darfur are women and they are the main labour force in the region. While the environmental conditions in the region are conducive for crop cultivation, women often find that profits of the harvest are not satisfactory, either due to lack of market trends knowledge or crop rotation scheme. Furthermore, not all women can access land to cultivate. When government authorities offer help, it is usually the men who take the financial assistance, while it is the women who are the actual income generators in almost all households.

To tackle this issue, the joint UN Women and United Nations – African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) State Liaison Functions (SLF) projects were developed to help women like Bab Al-Ginan. She and 64 other women in Darfur participated in a two-day workshop to enhance women’s economic empowerment and participation in livelihood initiatives. The workshop aimed to teach women how to increase their incomes through animal production projects (distribution of goats) and advanced farming methods. The workshop introduced women to the basic concepts of cooperatives, how to establish marketing networks as well as saving groups.

The women also learned how to manage microfinance projects among women groups. They discussed the types of income-generating activities that suit women’s economic status and how to open credit accounts in the saving bank. On the second day of the workshop, the women were divided into three groups. One group received four sacks of groundnuts for cooking oil processing and four plastic cooking oil containers; the second group received hair cutting tools for both young girls and boys, and the third group received two goats each. Bab Al-Ginan was in the third group.

To Bab Al-Ginan the two goats made a big difference, allowing her to earn an income for her family. After she received the goats, she started growing crops and selling them in the market. Her success made her a respected member of Menwashi’s cooperative network.

Bab Al-Ginan did not stop there. She knew that she needed to support her community and adopted six orphaned children, two girls and four boys. One of these orphans was very young when she took him in, and she was able to use the milk from the goats to feed him, keeping him alive and well-nourished.

She also encourages and helps her neighbours to help those in need. One of her friends now looks after elderly people, people with special needs and victims of conflict. Bab Al-Ginan became a symbol of hope, determination, and success in her community and for women in the region. Her name, Bab Al-Ginan, means the Gates of Heaven in English, a fitting name for an amazing woman.

Photo and written by: Ahmed Amin Ahmed (UN Women Communication Officer)