As of 30 September 2019, an estimated 364,200 people have been affected by heavy rains and flash floods across Sudan. Affected households mostly need emergency shelter and non-food items (ES/NFIs), such as plastic sheeting, plastic mats, jerry cans, blankets and cooking sets. These items will help restore a minimal sense of dignity and protection against exposure to the elements, mitigate health risks, provide essential household items, and ensure some privacy and security to those in need. The flood response in Sudan is being coordinated by the Flood Task Force (FTF) Steering Committee, which is led by the Government of Sudan’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC). Relief efforts are being undertaken by government institutions, UN agencies, national and international NGOs, and international charity organizations.
Emergency Shelter/Non-food Items (ES/NFIs) Sector Flood Response
Sector Overview: The Emergency Shelter/Non-food Items (ES/NFIs) sector has been able to respond to the ES/NFIs needs of about 230,00 people—through 10 sector partners and international assistance—in all 16 affected states. Partners also reached affected families in the Abyei area and Agok.
Gaps: The current gap for NFI needs stands at 34 per cent of families affected (about 117,700 people) across 16 states and the Abyei area. States with key gaps include Blue Nile, Gedaref, El Gezira and Kassala, where less than 20 per cent of people affected have been reached with ES/NFI assistance. Families who did not received emergency shelter have taken refuge in public buildings such as schools. Given the near end of the rainy season, shelter interventions for vulnerable IDPs, and host communities is a top priority. The NFI core pipeline has allocated additional resources to meet the needs in Khartoum, White Nile, and Red Sea states.
Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL) Sector Flood Response
Sector Overview: The Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL) sector has covered food security and livelihood needs of some 268,00 people affected by heavy rains and flash floods across the country. An estimated 78,200 people (about 21 per cent) are still waiting for assistance. To ensure rapid response to people in need, the World Food Programme (WFP) pre-positioned and re-allocated food stocks in different areas across the county. Additional support from Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey was also provided.
Gaps: More food assistance is needed in Khartoum state. In the Abyei PCA box, some areas remain inaccessible due to floodwaters and partners are looking into other options to deliver food to the affected people. Restocking of seeds, tools and livestock is required in Kassala, White Nile, North Darfur, Red Sea, and Blue Nile states.
Health Sector Flood Response
Sector Overview: The Health sector has been able to respond to the needs of some 169,000 people affected by heavy rains and flash floods across the country. An estimated 107,500 people (about 30 per cent) are yet to receive assistance.
The coordination of flood health response is carried out by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) Flood Response task force, which is co-chaired by WHO. Daily Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS) has been activated in all health facilities in areas affected by floods. WHO supported the activation of epidemic-prone diseases alert investigation and response in all affected states and has distributed 16 Rapid Response Kits (RRK)—enough to cover the needs of up to 2 million people for three months.
Community mobilization and integrated vector control campaigns were launched in affected areas, with WHO covering operational costs, providing equipment, personal protection, transportation, and training. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) assistance is required in all affected states. Out of the total population affected by floods it is estimated that 83,100 are women of reproductive age, of whom about 8,300 are currently pregnant. Emergency reproductive health kits, including clean delivery kits, are needed across all affected states to ensure safe deliveries, the provision of emergency obstetric care services, as well as other lifesaving sexual reproductive health services.
Gaps: More medicine and medical supplies are needed in most of the affected states as well as support for affordable life-saving referral services for emergency cases. Support for vector control and water safety campaigns, water chlorination, and community awareness is also required. UNFPA reports a gap in the supply of dignity kits due to lack of funding.
Nutrition Sector Flood Response
Sector overview: The nutrition sector has been able to respond to the nutrition needs of some 8,600 children under five years who have been affected by heavy rains and flash floods across the country. An estimated 58,300 children (about 85 per cent) are still waiting for assistance.
Financial support has been provided to partners—the SMoH and NGOs—to run flood response-related activities, including referral for malnourished cases. Health partners provided nutrition supplies that were dispatched to affected states to mitigate any increase in needs or enrolment of malnourished children. In some affected states, outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) and Targeted Supplementary Feeding Programme (TSFP) services are ongoing. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening was carried out and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) programmes and mobile OTPs were established.
Gaps: In Kassala, mass MUAC screening needs to be carried out with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) and ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) interventions in the 22 villages affected in Atbara River, Rural Kassala, and New Halfa (Halfa Algadeeda) localities.
Protection Sector Flood Response
Sector Overview: There are protection concerns in areas affected due to the lack of privacy and overcrowding. Gaps in other sectors such as the lack of functioning water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities, lack of shelter materials and unsafe access to services pose a risk to women and girls. There is also a lack of awareness on gender-based violence risks and services. UNFPA provided live-saving SRH services in affected states. In addition to basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care, this includes providing clinical management of rape and referral services for survivors of sexual violence, family planning, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) management. Dignity kits have been distributed in many states and in White Nile State UNFPA supported the provision of SRH and gender-based violence services in mobile clinics treating affected communities.
Gaps: There are gaps in the supply of dignity kits for affected women and girls of reproductive health age. Proper mapping of gender-based violence services in affected localities is needed in order to establish referral mechanisms.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sector Flood Response
Sector Overview: The water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector has been able to respond to the needs of some 222,000 people affected by heavy rains and flash floods across the country. An estimated 125,000 people (about 34 per cent) are still waiting for assistance.
Environmental health activities—including water quality monitoring, vector control campaigns, and sanitation and hygiene promotion activities—are ongoing in affected areas. WASH supplies (chlorine tablets, jerry cans and soap) were distributed to affected families. To support integrated vector control activities and access to safe water, WHO provided fogging machines, water reservoirs, water quality testing kits, water filters, personal protective equipment, and larvae collection kits. Some of the affected families have received WASH supplies and slabs for latrines. In some states drainage systems were rehabilitated and blocked drains were opened. Water pumps to drain stagnant water were also provided.
The FMoH released about 2.89 million Sudanese pounds (about US$64,000) for the construction of 300 emergency latrines; labour costs for the disinfection and cleaning of latrines; chlorination of water sources, including supervision and monitoring; and chlorine tablets for Khartoum State.
UNICEF’s Communication for Development Section, in partnership with the SMoH-Health Promotion Unit, trained 200 youth volunteers on water-borne diseases and prevention methods, as well as interpersonal communication skill and using social media in social mobilization. The trained volunteers will conduct behaviour change activities in affected areas.
Gaps: More hygiene promotion campaigns are required in affected areas. Gaps in WASH services, including waste collection and draining of stagnant water, have been reported in some areas. Some water points need rehabilitation and vector control activities are needed in areas that become accessible. Areas which are currently inaccessible due to flood waters will need WASH and vector control assistance and damaged latrines will need repairing.
Refugee Inter-sectoral Flood Response
Sector overview: The inter-agency refugee response in Sudan is coordinated through the inter-sectoral Refugee Consultation Forum (RCF), led by UNHCR and the Commission for Refugees (COR), and covers all interventions for refugees and asylum seekers delivered by humanitarian actors across all sectors (protection, ES/NFI, health, WASH, food security and nutrition, livelihoods and education).
Rainy season preparedness activities were carried out in refugee camps in East Darfur before the onset of the rainy season. Blankets and plastic sheets were distributed, in addition to the cleaning of drainage systems and haffirs. Extensive flood prevention and maintenance was completed in 2018 for refugee camps located in flood-prone areas. In Khartoum State, UNHCR and COR completed NFI distributions—including to host communities—in 'open area' refugee sites in Sharq El Nile, Umbadda and Jebel Aulia localities, in July/early August 2019, as part of rainy season preparedness.
UNHCR is supporting refugee families affected by heavy rains and flash floods across the country and NFI assistance will be provided to host community families based on assessed needs. Damaged infrastructure (classrooms, distribution waiting areas, police stations, clinic waiting areas; child-friendly spaces; and warehouses) in refugee camps in White Nile and East Darfur states was repaired. In Khartoum State, UNHCR supported with NFIs, nutrition, and WASH assistance for both refugee and host communities in Khartoum State.
Gaps: Vector control is urgently needed to mitigate disease outbreaks and risks associated with stagnant water.